2008年12月31日 星期三

Andy Warhol , Artist / Filmmaker

  • Born: 6 August 1928
  • Birthplace: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Died: 22 February 1987 (complications from gallbladder surgery)
  • Best Known As: The pop artist who painted a Campbell's Soup can

Name at birth: Andrew Warhola

Andy Warhol began as a commercial illustrator in New York, doing artwork for ads and magazines in the 1940s and 1950s. Eventually he crossed from commercial work to fine art, blurring the line between the two along the way.

In the early 1960s his huge and colorful silk-screen renderings of banal objects like Coke bottles and a Campbell's Soup can were hugely popular and established him as the leader of the so-called Pop Art movement. (His multi-color, multi-image portrait of Marilyn Monroe is another famous image from this era.) By the mid-1960s Warhol had become an icon of the psychedelic generation; he made strange and lengthy experimental movies, held famous gatherings in "The Factory," his Manhattan studio, and surrounded himself with a court of fellow artists and adoring fans. He also worked closely with the experimental rock group The Velvet Underground and (in 1969) founded the influential celebrity magazine Interview. Warhol's attitude was summed up in part in his statement, "In the future everyone will be world-famous for fifteen minutes."

Warhol was shot and critically wounded by an acquaintance, Valerie Solanas, in June of 1968. The incident was the basis of the 1996 film I Shot Andy Warhol and Lou Reed's 1990 song "I Believe"... In May of 2007 Warhol's Green Car Crash (Green Burning Car I) was sold at auction for $71.7 million, the most ever paid for one of his paintings; six months earlier a Warhol record was set with the sale of Mao for $17.4 million.



傳奇沃荷 「工作、賺錢皆藝術」

吳垠慧/台北報導  (20090101)

 很少藝術家像安迪.沃荷這樣,能毫不矯飾地直言:「賺錢是一種藝術,工作是一種藝術,好的生意就是好的藝術。」沃荷這位捷克移民第二代,在世的六十年裡 創下藝術史上傳奇扉頁。他的美學思想、創作手法影響了後起之輩藝術家,他個人也在卅歲出頭,就在紐約這個繁華之都享盡名利雙收的豐厚果實。

 他自己是名人,也熱愛跟名人為伍,還捧紅好幾位特立獨行的「超級巨星」。

 捷克移民後代 幼年身體孱弱

 沃荷的名言:「在未來,每個人都能成名十五分鐘。」這句話是至今仍常被引述的經典名句,也是沃荷人生觀與藝術觀的最佳註解。

 一九二八年,沃荷生於美國匹茲堡,父母都是捷克移民,父親是礦工和建築工人,母親是幫傭。沃荷幼年身體孱弱,罹患神經性舞蹈症,大多時間臥病在床看漫畫、電影雜誌和畫畫,這些經驗日後都成為他的創作靈感。在這段休養期,沃荷便展露了他在藝術方面的天分。

 一九四二年沃荷進入匹茲堡辛雷高中美術班就讀,接著進入卡內基科技工程學院。一九四九年,沃荷隻身到紐約闖天下,短短兩、三年間便以廣告設計師、插畫家的身分嶄露頭角。一九六○年代他轉向藝術創作,讓沃荷成名的是《康寶濃湯罐頭》系列。

 安迪.沃荷曾說:「我只是畫我認為是美麗的,大家每天使用,卻從來不去想他的東西。」他將康寶濃湯罐頭圖像運用在手提袋、女性洋裝上。此外,沃荷還畫美鈔,「畫罐頭是因為我喜歡,畫紙幣也是如此。」

 一九六二年,沃荷開始使用絹印法作為創作主要手法。絹印法可以大量地重複製作同一主題,這項做法更挑戰了傳統對 藝術品應該是獨一無二、無法複製的觀念。因此,當時曾有人認為,看他的作品只要看一張就等於看完一整個系列,即使從印刷刊物上看效果也差不多。其實,沃荷 的絹印原作畫面色彩多樣,仔細觀之,顏色之間的細節層次相當豐富,而非表面看來那麼簡單,在這次「普普教父─安迪.沃荷世界巡迴展」的展品中就可以看到這一點。

 沃荷的形象在多數人心中,不外乎是他那蒼白乾澀的面容、看來頗為厚重的眼鏡和瘦削的身形。在鏡頭前他的神情總是害羞,像個手足無措的大男孩,但一雙眼睛卻透露著神經質。

 這次「安迪.沃荷世界巡 迴展」中,就有卅四幅義大利攝影師迪諾.佩德里亞力貼身拍攝沃荷的照片。這些都是一九七五年沃荷去義大利旅行時,佩德里亞力貼身捕捉他的鏡頭。內容包括了 沃荷的公開行程像是接受媒體包圍採訪時的畫面,也有沃荷和女演員麗莎.明妮莉會面時的情景,甚至還有偷拍沃荷在旅館睡覺的模樣。

 沃荷是勤奮的工作狂,但也被批評為冷酷無情的「吸血鬼」。一九六八年,曾與他合作的女演員威勒麗(Valerie Solanas)闖入沃荷紐約的工作室「工廠」開槍射殺他,沃荷中彈卻大難不死。沒想到一九八七年沃荷卻因膽囊手術,藥物過敏病逝。

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