2014年6月25日 星期三

Patrick Rylands: a hero of toy design

Patrick Rylands: a hero of toy design

Patrick Rylands' toys were once in virtually every household. He talks here about his classic designs – including those beloved primary-coloured floating ducks – and his thoughts on modern toys
Patrick Rylands with one of his iconic toys
Patrick Rylands with one of his popular toys. Photograph: David Levene for the Guardian
The name may not be immediately familiar to you, but if you grew up in the late 60s, 70s or 80s, the chances are you had at least one of his toys in your house, more specifically in your bath. Patrick Rylands was chief designer at Ambi Toys for more than 30 years, and responsible for some of the most-loved baby and toddler toys. He combined simplicity of design with movement, sound and bright primary colours to ensure that children grew up knowing exactly how to fit three miniature plastic ducks in one big one.
Now there is a renewed interest in simple, effective toys that stimulate the imagination (perhaps it's a backlash to the abundance of tech-heavy toys now on the market) and Rylands' work is beginning to be properly appreciated again. He talked us through his very first creations, and his thoughts on modern toy design.


Invented by Rylands in 1966, PlayPlax has sold over a million copies – and is still in production today. Rylands had the idea while still studying at the Royal College of Art, and manufactured the prototype in his holidays, back home in Hull. "I'd become interested in the idea of play in itself and what I was trying to do was to make something that was just stuff, rather than anything that was predetermined. This is the least you can do to a bit of plastic and still make it useable for something else," he explains.
PlayPlax by Patrick Rylands
PlayPlax, 1968, still available at playplax.co.uk
As he was working at the Hornsea Pottery during his summer holidays, he showed the design to the boss, Desmond Rawson. "He came in and said: 'Eh, that's interesting lad, I know someone who'd make that for you'", recalls Rylands. "And he spoke to the people that were making stoppers for salt pots and lids for spice jars. And they as it happened were looking for their own product at the time, a company called Trendon."
The interlocking, brightly coloured design, which allows you to build infinite 3D combinations of squares, is a classic – the first of many Rylands was to produce.
Patrick Rylands drawing for Humpty Dumpty toy
A typically complex drawing – this one for a Humpty Dumpty toy
"I learned on the job," says Rylands. "There was never a drawing for PlayPlax or the first things, I just made a model – then the next things I did do drawings for. And we just sent the drawings straight to toolmakers. Little by little, things got more complicated. The boss was very cost-conscious so we never made prototypes. We always worked straight from drawings – in the end I was doing really quite complicated things straight from drawings, with huge complicated drawings, everything detailed."

Bird and Fish

Bird and fish toys by Patrick Rylands
Bird and Fish Toys, 1970.
In 1970, Rylands won the Duke of Edinburgh prize, awarded to the designer of a product "distinguished by its elegance". The judges particularly singled out the abstract qualities of these Bird and Fish toys, "which encourage children to use their imagination and introduce them to ideas of structure, form, colour and balance". Both are bath toys, made from ABS plastics, with just eyes for decoration and internal ballasts to keep them upright in the water. The design was minimalist enough to appeal to adults and children alike (indeed there is a thriving eBay market for them still).
The bird design was actually based on an Eskimo bone carving in the British Museum. They are now part of British design history and like many other of Rylands toys are on display in the V&A Museum of Childhood. In 2012 they were relaunched by Selegiochi Toys under the MasterToys brand, but unfortunately a manufacturing fault meant they had to be discontinued. There are rumours, though, that they will be making a comeback later this year.


After Trendon, Rylands worked closely with AmbiToys – orignally called Europlastic – in the Netherlands. "It was an outfit run by two Jewish friends who had fled Holland in the war, and when they came back they got together and set up import/export business. Among the things they bought and sold were fairly rudimentary plastic toys – you know, stacking beakers and that kind of thing. And being smart they realised they were paying too much for these, that if they made them themselves they'd get more out of it. So then they were in the toy business."
Rylands' time working for AmbiToys was hugely productive. "It would take me on average about six weeks to do a product, so we'd have a rolling list of things. And if I had half an idea I'd tell the boss about it and maybe send a little coloured sketch to say it could look like this … what do you think?
"Then I'd get down to the drawing board. Part of the difficulty, of course, is that you can't just draw a nice-looking thing. You have to draw a nice looking thing that will work. And if it's got parts, they've all got to come together. I'd find myself some days working on a section and then I'd discover that the part I was drawing had to go in a place where it wouldn't work. That was the downside of working alone."

Bath duck

Bath duck - the original drawing
Original drawing for the Bath Duck
The meticulous detail in what seem superficially to be the simplest of toys is evident in Rylands' drawings, perhaps more than in the finished toys. The beak on this toy was designed so that the slightest movement of the water set it into motion. It also allowed any water entering the toy to escape, thus avoiding an unfortunate duck-sinking incident ...
Duck bath toy
And the finished Bath Duck toy. Still available, £5.99 from galttoys.com
Inspiration came from everywhere. "Occasionally there would be something ready made. One quite popular toy I did was based on a 19th-century tin toy called Magic Run. That I just took directly – I remodelled it so obviously it was a completely different-looking thing, but the principle was there. But you'd see other things – bits of mechanism in other objects that could convert to toys."

Duck family

Duck family drawing
Duck family drawing. Photograph: Galt Toys
In another of Rylands' ingenious designs, three little ducklings hide inside the mother duck, or float free in the bath.
Duck family toys
Duck family (Ambi Toys, £10.99)

Cool Cat

Cat toy by Patrick Rylands
Cool cat (Ambi Toys, £8.99)
The faces on Patrick Rylands' toys have also developed over the years – conveying friendliness and character in a few simple lines. This cat's head spins and the body bobs when he is rolled along the floor. This cat dates from the period (around 1999) when Ambi Toys was sold to BRIO. That firm introduced the colour black into the range. Also at this time, Rylands was elected as a Royal Designer for Industry (RDI) - an honour introduced by the RSA in 1936.

Sniffer Mouse

Mice tails
Sniffer mouse (Ambi Toys, £4.99)
This photo shows an original design concept (right) and the current production model. In the original, the stiff rubbery tail points upwards and was designed to ping back into shape and position when flicked or pulled. But this was deemed unsuitable for children, due to risk of eyepoking, and replaced with a soft, cord-style tail. Health and safety gone mad?

Rocky Jocky

Ambi Toys ground to a halt, and was bought by an Italian distributor and owner of toy shops who had been a longstanding fan of Rylands' work. But when he fell ill, it went into limbo, leaving 120-odd products without a manufacturer or a home. Then Galt Toys stepped in, bought the business and after meeting with Rylands, bought his drawings too, so it could begin manufacturing the toys again.
Rocking horse design
Rocking horse design. Photograph: Galt
Rocking horse toy
Rocky Jocky (Ambi Toys, £6.99)
Rylands is now largely retired, though he consults with Galt on the range. So what does he make of contemporary toy design? "Nearly everything has got a screen and buttons to press. I find that sad because I think children need to learn through handling things. I've so often been to an antiques fair and seen something and thought 'Oh that looks interesting' and the minute I touched it I realised it wasn't, that I'd misread it. You need that extra information to make a judgment.
"I think that has to be important when you are growing up, that has to be what informs you about the physical world. And if it's all flat images that are manipulated on screen, it can't be as good. I love my computer, it's the most fabulous toy I've ever owned, but I don't think it should be the only thing."


Focus pocus
Focus pocus (Ambi Toys, £7.99)
All of Rylands' designs are notable for their bright, clean primary colours. So what does he make of the "pinkification" of girls' toys, and the colours used in manufacture today? "It had begun to happen in my time," he says. "There was a movement to have us not make everything in primaries. We did do just a handful of things in pastel shades one year – and luckily customers didn't like them. So we went back to primaries because that's what we knew to do.
"But I can't remember that it was ever a consideration, to be honest. We were making things for very young children and we used the brightest colours possible." Then there were practical considerations: "If we stuck to primaries and white it meant we didn't have to hold immense amounts of stock of material!"

2014年6月23日 星期一

From Humble Sneaker to Luxury Icon 運動鞋奢侈品


時尚報導 2014年06月16日
匡威查克·泰勒(Converse Chuck Taylor):你喝罐裝Bud啤酒,穿Levi's 501s牛仔褲。 你收藏黑膠唱片,夢想著有一天重裝你老爹的65年福特野馬汽車。 你在棒球場慶祝生日,在大屏幕上顯示你的名字。
超酷的巴黎時尚精品店科萊特( Colette )的櫥窗,引起了路人的注意,就像在這座城市的別處糕點對路人的吸引那樣。這一季,男士運動鞋的牆面似乎最有吸引力,現在是該店面向街道的展示中的重點。這裡放著一排排迷人的網球鞋:從萬斯(Vans)的限量版星球大戰圖案運動鞋,到拉夫·西蒙斯( Raf Simons )為阿迪達斯( Adidas )設計的色塊圖案運動鞋;再到布謝米(Buscemi)的手工皮質高幫鞋,上面裝飾著皮帶和18k金鎖,有點像愛馬仕(Hermès)的手袋。價格:760歐元,約合1040美元(這夠買12雙匡威全明星鞋不止)。
布謝米誕生還不到一年,但是這個洛杉磯品牌已經在能成為地位象徵的精英運動鞋界佔有一席之地。但是,2014年,我們看到一些新的、令人嚮往的款式到店並飛快賣光,比如紀梵希(Givenchy)的創意總監里卡多·提西(Riccardo Tisci)為耐克(Nike)設計的RT系列,以及西蒙斯對標誌性的斯坦·史密斯(Stan Smith)款的改造。今年秋季,法瑞爾·威廉姆斯(Pharrell Williams)和坎耶·韋斯特( Kanye West )將揭幕他們為阿迪達斯設計的運動鞋——它們在時尚界和運動鞋博客上引發的期待程度與他們的任何一張新專輯差不多。
的確,過去幾年裡,很多設計師、音樂家和視覺藝術家(比如湯姆·薩赫斯[Tom Sachs]2012年設計的耐克太空系列火星鞋[ NikeCraft Mars Yard shoe ])似乎集體決定把自己的創意活力用到卑微的運動鞋上。其中一個原因是他們意識到有些男人對運動鞋的迷戀已經接近女人對手袋和高跟鞋的渴求,這方面的奢侈品市場已經形成(和女人的時裝鞋不同,運動鞋無需遵循季節週期,這能解釋為什麼似乎總是不斷有新款發布)。現在的火熱程度超過了運動鞋歷史上的任何時候——它可以追溯到19世紀中期硫化橡膠的誕生——我們看到了高端和低端、可輕鬆買到與稀有款式的匯聚,包括重新發售的款式(比如有120年曆史的巴塔[Bata]網球鞋,約誕生於1965年的阿迪達斯斯坦·史密斯運動鞋)、前瞻性的款式(比如提西為耐克設計的空軍一號運動鞋)、謹慎的細分市場款式(比如Buttero牌的公共項目[Common Projects]款)以及開創性的組合(比如耐克的飛人喬丹未來珍藏款,上面有3M反光網籃格子圖案)。
喬恩·布謝米(Jon Buscemi)十多年前進入運動鞋行業,在溜冰鞋品牌DC Shoes工作。在他看來,對運動鞋的普遍興趣和接受代表了時尚界的一種文化變遷。
當然,在運動場外穿運動鞋的概念並不新鮮:20世紀70年代穿到Studio 54夜總會的耐克華夫運動鞋(Nike Waffle Trainers);山本耀司為阿迪達斯做的早期設計;普拉達(Prada)的PS0906 ,它們在1997年首次亮相,很快在附庸風雅的人群中流行開來,各種款式競相引領潮流。
科萊特的創始人、創意總監莎拉·安德爾曼(Sarah Andelman)認為時尚運動鞋已經成了一種“社會現象”,其中的佼佼者受到青睞既因其功能性,也因其設計美感。
“運動鞋是一個更能發揮你的創造力的領域,因為它讓人想到體育,但同時你也在跟科技打交道,”設計師皮埃爾·哈迪( Pierre Hardy )說。他提到運動鞋時用的是法語術語。這一季,在他引人注目的設計中參考了羅伊·利希滕施泰因(Roy Lichtenstein)和歐普藝術,同時也繼續他的正式男裝系列。“你可以帶一點未來主義,一點波普文化,”他說。男人們似乎無所畏懼。哈迪說他的運動鞋目前佔他男裝生意的77%。
男性顧客也不會因為價格而退縮,橡膠鞋底的球鞋正在和時裝鞋抗衡。哈迪的高端款式價格在570歐元至850歐元之間。里克·歐文斯( Rick Owens )為阿迪達斯設計的Vicious款價格為490歐元,華倫天奴(Valentino)的霓虹橡膠飾釘迷彩印花Rockstud運動鞋也是這個價格。顧客們熱切盼望的迪奧桀驁(Dior Homme)和加勒斯·普(Gareth Pugh)的運動鞋也在500歐元左右,相比之下,西蒙斯的斯坦·史密斯款才370歐元,顯得很便宜。
主要得益於男性時尚雜誌的編輯立場——《GQ》的三月刊有一篇關於本季最佳的綜述,宣告高級運動鞋“全面來襲”——如今幾乎沒有什麼場合是不適合穿運動鞋的。伊麗莎白·塞曼海克(Elizabeth Semmelhack)在多倫多的巴塔鞋子博物館( Bata Shoe Museum )策劃了一個關於運動鞋文化的展覽,該展覽將持續到6月1日。她說,這股潮流是一個更大的關於男性自我表達的運動的一部分。“運動鞋把男人們釋放到時尚界,且不會對他們的個性造成威脅,”她說。
迪爾克·舍恩伯格(Dirk Schönberger)從2010年起擔任阿迪達斯運動時尚部門的創意總監,可以被認為是能從職業運動鞋的框架外思考的人。但是,他堅持認為自己的展望從未遠離該品牌的基因。“我來這裡不是要把阿迪達斯變成一個時尚公司,”他在柏林接受電話採訪時說。

2014年6月17日 星期二

Phillip King 英國雕塑家駐台灣期間作品將在倫敦展出

〔駐歐洲特派記者胡蕙寧/倫敦報導〕為慶祝英國知名雕塑大師菲利浦金80歲生日暨紀念其超過50年創作生涯,英國Thomas Dane Gallery策劃倫敦個展暨大型戶外展,展出多件菲利浦金於2012年在台灣創作。
  • 菲利浦金喜歡用不同幾何造型組合來探討雕塑與公共環境的關係。 (記者胡蕙寧攝)
    菲利浦金喜歡用不同幾何造型組合來探討雕塑與公共環境的關係。 (記者胡蕙寧攝)
倫敦展覽室內部分至7月26日於Thomas Dane Gallery展出;大型戶外雕塑展6月25日至7月25日展出一個月。菲利浦金在台創作均為大型雕塑,展出地點在位於倫敦市中心的Ranelagh Gardens。

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Quill (1971), Rotterdam
Phillip King PRA (born 1 May 1934,[1] Tunis, French Tunisia) is a British sculptor. He is one of Anthony Caro's best known students, even though the two artists are near contemporaries. Their education followed similar trajectories and they both worked as assistants to Henry Moore. Following the "New Generation" show at the Whitechapel Gallery, both Caro and King were included in the seminal 1966 exhibit, "Primary Structures" at the Jewish Museum in New York representing the British influence on the "New Art". In 2011, his work was represented in the Royal Academy exhibition on Modern British Sculpture which explored British sculpture of the twentieth century.


While doing his national service before going to university in Cambridge (Christ's College), he spent much time in Paris where he met many artists. He studied modern languages as Christ's College, Cambridge from 1954–57, and sculpture at Saint Martin's School of Art from 1957–58 with Anthony Caro.[2] The next year he spent working as an assistant to Henry Moore and teaching at Saint Martin's.
In 1990 King was made Professor Emeritus of the Royal College and was the President of the Royal Academy of Art from 1999 to 2004, presumably declining the usual knighthood. In 1992 William Feaver wrote in London's Observer that King is "the one sculptor of his generation prepared to jettison what he has proved himself good at in order to explore what cannot be programmed." He took over at a time when the Academy was facing financial trouble and he has said it distracted him from his work.
King proved Feaver correct by turning unexpectedly to Japan and ceramics in 1993 and two years later making the powerful unglazed, vessel-themed works which were the focus of an exhibition in 2004. Richard Cork wrote about the sculptures:
Often pierced from one side to the other and interrupted by renegade protuberances, they end up conveying more emotional conflict than initially seems possible. But they possess optimism as well... That is why he is such a rewarding artist, and why each distinct phase in his ceaselessly resourceful career adds to the richness of his achievement.[citation needed]
The exhibition was presented in Yorkshire, London, and New York.
One sculpture titled Zen Garden, created by King and students from the Royal College of Art, remains available to see within Tout Quarry, Isle of Portland, Dorset, England.
In 2010, Phillip King was a recipient of the International Sculpture Center's Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award.[3] He lives and works in London.


  1. "Birthday's today". The Telegraph. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2014. "Prof Phillip King, sculptor; President, Royal Academy of Arts, 1999–2004; 79"
  2. http://www.sculpture.org.uk/biography/PhillipKing/
  3. International Sculpture Center website. 'Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award page'. Retrieved 24 January 2010.


Exhibition Catalogues
  • Phillip King: A Survey through 50 Years. [Catalogue of the exhibition held at Flowers East 21 January - 19 February 2011] London.
  • Hilton, T. (1992) The sculpture of Phillip King. Lund Humphries Publishers Ltd

External links


更新時間 2014年 6月 5日, 星期四 - 格林尼治標準時間10:48
《憩》Au Repos (At Rest)
英國知名雕塑大師菲利浦·金(Philip King)駐台灣期間創作的作品將在倫敦展出。
為慶祝英國菲利浦·金80歲生日暨紀念其超過50年之創作生涯,Thomas Dane Gallery特別策劃了其倫敦個展暨大型戶外展。


《 X爆》 X Plode
《 X爆》 的色彩變化凸顯不同狀態(圖片提供:東和鋼鐵公司)

菲利浦·金在台灣創作了包括:「憩」(At Rest)、「鄧斯特布爾之舞」(Dunstable Reel)、「高空閃耀」(High Sky and Bling)、「環形之舞」(Ring Reel)以及「突擊」(Lash)等等。
此次展覽分為室內展與戶外展,其中室內展部分從6月11日至7月26日於Thomas Dane Gallery展出。
展出地點在位於倫敦市中心的Ranelagh Gardens。

2014年6月14日 星期六

A Corporate Paean to Frank Lloyd Wright /S.C.Johnson(庄臣)公司守護建築大師賴特傑作

很巧,月前與羅文森學長認識,讀了幾本他寫的回憶錄: 《戀戀九號宿舍》《當機會被我遇見》《難以忘懷的大學生活》(暫)《神州行》(暫)...
巧的是,這篇A Corporate Paean to Frank Lloyd Wright指的是/S.C.Johnson(庄臣)公司---羅學長的博士後服務的公司,所以有70-80年代第一手的國際各分公司的服務經驗.......

SC Johnson: A Family Company | Innovative Cleaning ...


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A Corporate Paean to Frank Lloyd Wright
By ROBERT SHAROFF June 10, 2014

The Great Work Room in the Administration Building at the headquarters of S.C. Johnson in Racine, Wis., is known for its distinctive “lily pad” design.

This week a portion of the Research Tower designed by Frank Lloyd Wright at the headquarters of S.C. Johnson in Racine, Wis., will reopen as a museum. The project is part of an eight-year effort by the company to restore its Wright campus.
If anything is eternal in real estate, it is the dance of desire that exists between chief executives and their architects.
Corporate executives tend to obsess over the bottom line while longing to erect a brick and mortar legacy. Architects — particularly the visionary variety — see every job as a way to explore new design concepts and materials.
In 1943, Herbert F. Johnson Jr., the third-generation leader of S. C. Johnson, which has its headquarters here in Racine, tangled in just that way with Frank Lloyd Wright. While Wright’s design for the company’s executive offices, the Administration Building, had been rapturously received, Mr. Johnson grew wary of enlisting Wright for a second project, an adjacent research facility.
“To be frank, Frank,” Mr. Johnson, who was known as Hib, wrote in a letter to Wright, “we simply will not consider a financial and construction nightmare like the office building.”
Wright, then 76 and in the midst of one of his periodic career resurgences, turned on the charm. “You aren’t losing your good hunches are you, Hib?” he responded. “The ones that made you what you are today?”
Being Wright, he also could not resist a dig at the preliminary plans Mr. Johnson had included with his note.
“The plan your department made is like all plans made by departmental minds,” he said. “Just a little hole for the little cat and a big hole for the big cat.”
Eventually — and not for the last time — the big cat succumbed to Wright’s entreaties, paving the way for the Research Tower, which would prove to be one of the architect’s most unusual structures.
Mr. Johnson has overseen much of the restoration of the company’s Wright buildings and hopes to build on their lure. This week, a small piece of the Research Tower, also designed by Mr. Wright, will reopen as a museum. The tower, a detail of which is shown, was finished in 1950 and includes seven two-level stories. The floors are cantilevered off a concrete core sunk 50 feet into the ground.
Mr. Johnson has overseen much of the restoration of the company’s Wright buildings and hopes to build on their lure. This week, a small piece of the Research Tower, also designed by Mr. Wright, will reopen as a museum. The tower, a detail of which is shown, was finished in 1950 and includes seven two-level stories. The floors are cantilevered off a concrete core sunk 50 feet into the ground.
William Zbaren for The New York Times
This week, after 30-odd years of being shuttered, a small piece of the Research Tower will reopen as a museum that recreates down to the last test tube the way the building functioned during its heyday in the 1950s. The project is one of the final pieces of an eight-year, $30 million effort the company has undertaken to restore its landmark Wright campus.
Herbert Fisk Johnson III, current chief executive of S. C. Johnson and grandson of Hib, who died in 1978, has overseen much of the restoration and hopes to build on the lure of the Wright buildings, which draw tourists to Racine weekend after weekend.
The correspondence between his grandfather and Wright, which Mr. Johnson said had not been published before, provides a glimpse into how difficult it could be for Wright to attain his vision. In an email interview, Mr. Johnson, known as Fisk, described their relationship as “love-hate.”
“The Administration Building was so over budget — it was close to half the net worth of the entire company when it was done,” he said. “My grandfather appreciated the genius and the beauty of the creation, but was embarrassed by how much it cost.”
With its meticulous brickwork, custom furniture and fixtures, as well as the sky-lit Great Work Room that creates the uncanny sensation of being at the bottom of an enormous lily pond, the Administration Building — completed in 1939 — is generally regarded as one of Wright’s signal achievements. The total cost was just under $3 million (roughly $50 million today).
While more modest, the Research Tower, finished in 1950, includes seven two-level stories, each of which contains a floating mezzanine. The floors are cantilevered off a concrete core sunk 50 feet into the ground that Wright compared to a tree root. The core also contains a narrow staircase that, with a small circular elevator, is the only way to move between floors. Total square footage is about 20,000.
The ribbon windows consist of tiers of Pyrex glass tubes, essentially oversize versions of the ones used in laboratories like those in the Research Tower.
Brady Roberts, chief curator of the Milwaukee Art Museum, calls the tower “the closest thing to a built work of 20th-century utopian architecture that you will ever find.”
Brendan Gill, Wright’s biographer, remarked, “Like so many of Wright’s works, the Research Tower succeeds as an aesthetic object, but from the beginning presented an almost endless series of difficulties.”
That it did. The fixed and unshaded Pyrex tube windows made temperature control difficult in the summer. Wright also resisted installing sprinklers in a building where open-flame experiments were often underway, on the grounds that they were unsightly. The sprinklers eventually were installed.
Still, for the next 30 years, the Research Tower functioned as the R&D heart of S. C. Johnson, which was founded in 1886 and is the manufacturer of household products like Windex, Pledge and Raid.
Cary E. Manderfield, director of research and development for the company, remembers working in the tower just before it was taken out of service in the early 1980s.
“It was a great place to do research,” Mr. Manderfield said. “Just a few hops up or down the stairs and you could collaborate with a colleague, learn what you needed to learn to do an experiment or borrow a piece of lab equipment or a chemical. A lot of very good science came out of the tower.”
In 1982, the Research Tower was officially retired; it had not been repurposed because of concerns that upgrading to meet building code standards could have compromised its architectural integrity.
“The tower is an incredible jewel and I wanted to share it with the world,” Mr. Johnson said.
An enclosed glass-tube bridge connects the Research Tower and the Administration Building.
An enclosed glass-tube bridge connects the Research Tower and the Administration Building.
William Zbaren for The New York Times
Almost from the beginning, the 35-acre S. C. Johnson campus has functioned as a part-time tourist attraction for Racine, a 19th-century industrial city about 75 miles north of Chicago on Lake Michigan. Besides the Wright structures, the campus includes two other architectural gems.
The first is the Golden Rondelle Theater, which was the S. C. Johnson Pavilion at the 1964 World’s Fair in New York. After the fair, it was disassembled and moved here. Supposedly modeled on a Wright church, it functions today as an auditorium and visitor center.
Then, four years ago, the company commissioned Norman Foster, winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, to design Fortaleza Hall, which commemorates an expedition Hib Johnson made to the jungles of Brazil in the 1930s in search of a new source for the company’s main product, floor wax.
Fortaleza Hall also includes galleries where the company stages exhibitions about Wright’s career. The current show, “At Home With Frank Lloyd Wright,” examines three of his residences — the two Taliesin compounds, in Spring Green, Wis., and Scottsdale, Ariz., and a suite at the Plaza Hotel in New York that he occupied and modified while designing the Guggenheim Museum.
The exhibitions are co-curated by Mr. Roberts of the Milwaukee Art Museum and Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, chief archivist of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in Scottsdale.
S. C. Johnson offers free tours of its campus on summer Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays and receives about 9,000 visitors a year. Mr. Johnson hopes to triple that number with the addition of the Research Tower and regular exhibitions.
Half a century after Wright’s death in 1959, the phenomenon of Frank Lloyd Wright tourism continues to expand in the Midwest. One of the newer attractions is the 19-story Price Tower in Bartlesville, Okla., which was completed in 1956. That and the Research Tower are Wright’s only extant high-rise buildings.
The Price Tower was built for the H. C. Price Company, an oil and gas pipeline construction firm. It was sold to Phillips Petroleum in 1981 and, in 2000, was donated to a nonprofit organization that has transformed it into the Price Tower Arts Center. Restored in 2004, it contains a hotel, restaurant, galleries and office space, and attracts 30,000 visitors a year.
“We are the most iconic building in town,” said Timothy L. Boruff, executive director of the center.
Though Wright was born in Wisconsin, the epicenter of Wright tourism is undoubtedly Oak Park, Ill., where he lived and worked during the early years of his career. It is the home of more than two dozen Wright buildings and numerous others by his Prairie School disciples and acolytes.
Back in Racine, Mr. Johnson is contemplating his own legacy. Over the years, he says, various financial executives have contended that the company would be better off moving to more modern quarters.
Mr. Johnson is not buying it. “My grandfather made incredibly bold decisions, one of which was to build these buildings in spite of the cost,” he said. “For me, they are a visual reminder of those decisions and of the importance of being bold when leading this enterprise. We are committed to keeping Wright’s vision intact.”
日化又稱日用化學工業產品(簡稱日用化工)或稱日用化學品,是指生產人們在日常生活中所需要的化學產品的工業。列入中國化學工業年鑒、單獨統計產量(產值)的日用 ...



庄臣公司(S.C.Johnson)是總部設在威斯康星州的拉辛(Racine)的家庭清潔用品公司,小赫伯特·F·庄臣(Herbert F. Johnson Jr.)是其第三代傳人。1943年,他正像前文所說的那樣,和建築師弗蘭克·勞埃德·賴特(Frank Lloyd Wright)進行了一番鬥智斗勇。雖然賴特為庄臣行政大樓(Administration Building)做的設計獲得了極佳反響,庄臣卻不敢聘請他設計第二個項目,即緊鄰行政大樓的研究設施。
最終(其實這還不是最後一次),這位「大人物」在賴特的軟磨硬泡下鬆了口,為研究大樓(Research Tower)的建設鋪平了道路。日後證明,這是賴特最傑出的作品之一。
William Zbaren for The New York Times
赫伯特·菲斯克·庄臣三世(Herbert Fisk Johnson III)是庄臣公司的現任首席執行官,也是逝世於1978年的希伯的孫子。菲斯克親自監督了大部分修繕工作,以期保留賴特建築原有的風貌。正是這些建築吸引了源源不斷的遊客來到拉辛。
精細的磚砌工程、定製的傢具及設施、有天窗照明的大工作室(Great Work Room)——這些設計營造出一種奇妙的氛圍,讓人感覺就像置身於巨型荷花池的池底一般。行政大樓竣工於1939年,被視為賴特的標誌性作品之一。工程總造價接近300萬美元(大致相當於今天的5000萬美元,約合人民幣3億元)。
密爾沃基藝術博物館(Milwaukee Art Museum)的總策展人布拉迪·羅伯茨(Brady Roberts)把這座大樓稱為「你能找到的、最接近20世紀烏托邦建築的作品」。
賴特的傳記作者布倫丹·吉爾(Brendan Gill)評論說,「和賴特的眾多作品一樣,研究大樓是一件成功的美學作品,但是它從一開始就要面對數不清的困難。」
加里·E·曼德菲爾德(Cary E. Manderfield)是庄臣公司的研發總監。研究大樓於20世紀80年代初停用之前,他曾在那裡工作。他回憶了當時的光景。
William Zbaren for The New York Times
Golden Rondelle劇院就是其中之一,它曾是庄臣公司在1964年紐約世界博覽會上的展館。世博會結束後,它被拆解運回並重新組裝。其建築藍本據說是賴特設計的一座教堂。如今,它的用途是一座禮堂和遊客服務中心。
四年前,庄臣公司聘請普利茲克建築獎(Pritzker Architecture Prize)得主諾曼·福士特(Norman Foster)設計了福塔雷薩大廳(Fortaleza Hall),以紀念20世紀30年代希伯·庄臣前往巴西叢林的考察活動。考察的目的,是為地板蠟這個公司主打產品尋找新的原料源。
福塔雷薩大廳還包括幾間畫廊,庄臣公司在這裡舉辦有關賴特職業生涯的展覽。當前的展覽主題為「弗蘭克·勞埃德·賴特之家」(At Home With Frank Lloyd Wright),該展覽審視的是賴特的三處住宅,它們是:兩座分別位於威斯康星州春綠村(Spring Green)和亞利桑那州斯科茨代爾(Scottsdale)、名為「塔里耶森」(Taliesin)的建築;以及紐約廣場飯店(Plaza Hotel)的一個套間。賴特在設計古根海姆博物館(Guggenheim Museum)時曾入住並改建過這個套間。
這些展覽,是密爾沃基藝術博物館的羅伯茨聯同弗蘭克·勞埃德·賴特基金會的首席檔案管理員布魯斯·布魯克斯·菲佛(Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer)共同策劃的。弗蘭克·勞埃德·賴特基金會位於斯科茨代爾(Scottsdale)。
賴特逝世於1959年。如今,半個世紀過去了,關於賴特的「朝聖」之旅,正在美國中西部持續鋪開。一個較新的旅遊景點是19層的普萊斯大樓(Price Tower),位於俄克拉荷馬的巴特爾斯維爾(Bartlesville),竣工於1956年。普萊斯大樓和研究大樓是賴特僅存的兩座高層建築作品。
普萊斯大樓是為H.C.Price石油與天然氣管道建築公司建的。1981年,普萊斯大樓被菲利普斯石油公司(Phillips Petroleum)收購,又於2000年被捐贈給一家非盈利機構,隨後改建為普萊斯大樓藝術中心(Price Tower Arts Center)。經過2004年的翻修,樓內現有一家賓館,還有餐廳、畫廊和辦公區,每年吸引遊客3萬人次。
藝術中心的執行董事蒂莫西·L·博魯夫(Timothy L. Boruff)說:「普萊斯大樓是城裡最具標誌性的建築物。」
儘管賴特出生於威斯康星州(Wisconsin),但是朝聖者雲集的中心地帶,無疑是伊利諾伊州的橡樹園(Oak Park)。賴特在職業生涯的早期曾在那裡生活和工作。那裡有20多座建築出自他的手筆,他在「草原學派」(Prairie School)的弟子和信徒,也在當地留下了大量建築作品。