2018年11月30日 星期五

談AI復畫的最大挑戰:Hokusai 葛飾北齋:NHK - The Lost Hokusai Documentary 長野県小布施

Hokusai 葛飾北齋:NHK - The Lost Hokusai Documentary 長野県小布施
21:33 1 99 葛飾北齋と浮世絵 2017-09-15 漢清講堂 Hokusai 葛飾北齋: 夕陽富士山;“Until the age of 70, nothing I drew was worthy of…

Could artificial intelligence help recreate lost masterpieces, such as the paintings stolen from Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum?
That’s the idea behind RePaint, a new AI-based 3-D printing technology:

2018年11月29日 星期四

The Venus of Brassempouy

At over 25,000 years old, the figurine is the oldest known realistic depiction of a human face.


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Venus de Brassempouy
Venus de Brassempouy.jpg
Created~25,000 years ago
Discovered1892 BrassempouyFrance
The Venus of Brassempouy (French: la Dame de Brassempouy, meaning "Lady of Brassempouy", or Dame à la Capuche, "Lady with the Hood") is a fragmentary ivoryfigurine from the Upper Palaeolithic. It was discovered in a cave at BrassempouyFrance in 1892. About 25,000 years old, it is one of the earliest known realistic representations of a human face.


Brassempouy is a small village in the département of Landes in southwest France. Two caves near the village, 100 metres from each other, were among the first Paleolithic sites to be explored in France. They are known as the Galerie des Hyènes (Gallery of the Hyenas) and the Grotte du Pape (the "Pope's Cave"). The Venus of Brassempouy was discovered in the Pope's Cave in 1894,[1] accompanied by at least eight other human figures. These may be an example of unfinished work, as if the artist or artists carved several figurines at the same time.
P. E. Dubalen first explored the Grotte du Pape in 1881, followed by J. de Laporterie and Édouard Piette (1827–1906) from 1894 onwards. Since archaeological excavation techniques were then only starting to develop, they paid little attention to the stratigraphy of the site containing the remains. In 1892 the site was pillaged and disturbed almost beyond reconstruction by a field trip of amateurs from the Association française pour l’avancement de la science.[2] Nevertheless, Piette described layers attributed to the late and middle Solutrean. He termed the bottom levels he reached as éburnéen (pale or white like ivory), in reference to the copious amounts of ivoryworks which they contained. Modern reanalysis of the site has been undertaken under the direction of Henri Delporte, 1981–2000.
In 1894, one of those strata, today recognized as Gravettian, yielded several fragments of statuettes, including the "Lady with the Hood". Piette saw the figures as closely related to the representations of animals of the Magdalenian. He developed a hypothetical chronologythat was later refuted by Henri Breuil.


Front and side view of the Venus of Brassempouy
"La figurine à la Ceinture" (The figurine with a belt), one of several Venus figurines discovered alongside the Venus of Brassempouy[3]
The Venus of Brassempouy was carved from mammoth ivory. According to archaeologist Paul Bahn the head is "unsexed, although it is usually called a 'Venus' or a 'lady'".[4] The head is 3.65 cm high, 2.2 cm deep and 1.9 cm wide. The face is triangular and seems tranquil. While forehead, nose and brows are carved in relief, the mouth is absent. A vertical crack on the right side of the face is linked to the internal structure of the ivory. On the head is a checkerboard-like pattern formed by two series of shallow incisions at right angles to each other; it has been interpreted as a wig, a hood with geometric decoration,[5] or simply a representation of hair.
Randall White observed in the Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (December 2006), "The figurines emerged from the ground into a colonial intellectual and socio-political context nearly obsessed with matters of race."[6] Although the style of representation is essentially realistic, the proportions of the head do not correspond exactly to any known human population of the present or past. Since the mid-twentieth century, interpretative questions have shifted from race to matters concerning womanhood and fertility, White has noted.[6]


Although the head was discovered so early that its context could not be studied thoroughly, scholars agree that the Venus of Brassempouy belonged to an Upper Palaeolithic material culture, the Gravettian (29,000–22,000 BP). More precisely, they place the figurine in the Middle Gravettian, with "Noailles" burins circa 26,000 to 24,000 BP.[7] It is more or less contemporary with the other Palaeolithic Venus figurines, such as those of LespugueDolní VěstoniceWillendorfetc. Nonetheless, it is distinguished among the group by the realistic character of the representation.


The Venus of Brassempouy is preserved in the Musée d'Archéologie Nationale at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris[8] Since ivory is very susceptible to damage from factors such as temperature change, moisture, and light, the figure is not part of the Palaeolithic's department, but it is exhibited in the Salle Piette of the Museum, only opened with reservation.
At Brassempouy, a variety of objects excavated in the Grotte du Pape are on display at the Maison de la Dame. This exhibition space, primarily devoted to regional archaeology, also displays a fine set of casts of palaeolithic sculptures. These include the nine existing specimens from Brassempouy, but also casts of the well-known figures from Lespugue, Willendorf and Dolní Věstonice, as well as the Mal'ta Venuses, and the Grimaldi Venuses.


In 1976, the Venus of Brassempouy was depicted on a 2.00 franc stamp. It has also been the motif of a 15-franc (CFA) stamp of the Republic of Mali.

See also

Caresse Crosby (1891 – 1970)

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Caresse Crosby
Caresse Crosby and her whippet.jpg
Caresse Crosby and her whippet, Clytoris
Mary Phelps Jacob

April 20, 1891
DiedJanuary 26, 1970 (aged 78)
Other namesPolly Jacob, Polly Peabody
OccupationPublisher, activist, writer
Known forInventor of the modern bra
Co-founder, Black Sun Press
Notable work
Portfolio: An Intercontinental Quarterly
Richard R. Peabody
(m. 1915; div. 1922)

Harry Crosby
(m. 1922; his death 1929)

Selbert Young
(m. 1937div. 1939)
  • William Jacob Peabody
  • Poleen Wheatland Peabody
Parent(s)William Hearn Jacob
Mary Phelps Jacob
Caresse Crosby (born Mary Phelps Jacob; April 20, 1891 – January 26, 1970)[1] was the first recipient of a patent for the modern bra,[2] an American patron of the arts, publisher, and the "literary godmother to the Lost Generation of expatriate writers in Paris." She and her second husband, Harry Crosby, founded the Black Sun Press, which was instrumental in publishing some of the early works of many authors who would later become famous, among them Ernest HemingwayArchibald MacLeishHenry MillerAnaïs NinKay BoyleCharles BukowskiHart Crane, and Robert Duncan.
Crosby's parents, William Hearn Jacob and Mary (née Phelps) Jacob, were both descended from American colonial families—her father from the Van Rensselaer family, and her mother from William Phelps. In 1915, Mary (nicknamed Polly) married Richard R. Peabody, another blue-blooded Bostonian whose family had arrived in New Hampshire in 1635. They had two children, but following Richard's service in World War I, he became a drunk who loved to watch buildings burn.[3]:79 She met Harry Crosby, who was 7 years her junior, at a picnic in 1920 while her husband was still with the army in Europe, and they had sex within two weeks. Their public relationship scandalized proper Boston society. Two years later, Richard granted her a divorce, and Harry and Polly were married. They immediately left for Europe, where they joined the Lost Generation of American expatriates. They embraced a bohemianand decadent lifestyle, living off Harry's trust fund of US$12,000 a year[4]:397 (or about $171,000 in today's dollars), had an open marriage with numerous ongoing affairs, a suicide pact, frequent drug use, wild parties, and long trips abroad. At her husband's urging, Polly took the name Caresse in 1924. In 1925, they began publishing their own poetry as Éditions Narcisse in exquisitely printed, limited-edition volumes. In 1927, they re-christened the business as the Black Sun Press.[5]
In 1929, one of her husband's affairs culminated in his death as part of a murder-suicide or double suicide. His death was marked by scandal as the newspapers speculated wildly about whether Harry shot his lover or not. Caresse returned to Paris, where she continued to run the Black Sun Press. With the prospect of war looming, she left Europe in 1936 and married Selbert Young, an unemployed, alcoholic actor 16 years her junior. They lived on a Virginia plantation they rehabilitated outside Washington, D.C., until she divorced him. She moved to Washington, D.C. and began a long-term love affair with black actor-boxer Canada Lee, despite the threat of miscegenation laws. She founded Women Against Warand continued, after World War II, to try to establish a Center for World Peace at Delphi, Greece. When rebuffed by Greek authorities, she purchased Castello di Rocca Sinibalda, a 15th-century castle north of Rome, which she used to support an artists' colony. She died of pneumonia related to heart disease in Rome, in 1970.

Gertrude Jekyll ( 1843 – 1932)

Gertrude Jekyll (/ˈkəl/ JEE-kəl; 29 November 1843 – 8 December 1932) was a British horticulturistgarden designer, craftswoman, photographer, writer and artist.[1][2] She created over 400 gardens in the United Kingdom, Europe and the United States, and wrote over 1,000 articles[2] for magazines such as Country Life and William Robinson's The Garden.[3] Jekyll has been described as "a premier influence in garden design" by British and American gardening enthusiasts.[2]


"The love of gardening is a seed once sown that never dies.”
Gertrude Jekyll, horticulturalist and writer, was born #onthisday 1843. As a young woman Jekyll absorbed the principles of the Arts and Crafts movement, working as a painter, embroiderer and interior designer. In 1891, as a consequence of her failing eyesight, she turned whole-heartedly to gardening and garden design. Combining her artistic training with her expansive horticultural knowledge she designed over 300 gardens and wrote extensively on the subject.
Discover the other gardeners in our collection:http://ow.ly/kLA730mLQEH