2019年5月23日 星期四

I.M. Pei, Master Architect Whose Buildings Dazzled the World, Dies at 102


貝聿銘去世,年102歲
他來自一個傳奇的家庭:蘇州貝家。
歷經四個朝代,富了14代:最終八十高齡從美國回到蘇州,
老家獅子林早已上繳公家,上百親戚衣衫破爛的來見他,他老淚縱橫。
2006年他在蘇州留下「蘇州博物館」,罕見找了姪女、姪子,從加拿大、香港回到蘇州經營專賣店,
他不想自己和故鄉的緣份,再被毀了一次。
貝家,是蘇州赫赫有名的姓氏。
根據貝聿銘傳記中的介紹,貝氏族人,是在元末戰亂中,來到蘇州的。
他們靠行醫賣藥起家,到了乾隆年間,貝氏已經成為蘇州四富之一。
離蘇州博物館300米,就是蘇州最著名的園林獅子林——也是貝家的老宅。
乾隆皇帝每次下江南,到蘇州均指定住在獅子林,至今,園中乃留有乾隆「到此一游」的「真趣」匾。
貝聿銘在這園中,曾經珍貴的留下一張翩翩少年照片。
別人都說,富不過三代。按照這個說法,貝聿銘算是富十五代。
這位十五代,把貝氏家族的榮譽,推向了一個新的高度。
貝家最為興旺的支脈,是同為第十三世孫的貝哉安和貝潤生兩支。
他們的六世祖是親兄弟,兩人同為貝氏餘脈,卻都不以醫藥業成名發家,
貝哉安被稱為「金融世家」,貝潤生則被稱為「顏料大王」。
貝哉安本來是可以中舉走仕途的,20歲,他已是蘇州府學貢生。
父親的忽然去世,使得貝哉安放棄了「學而優則仕」,全力打理父親留下的產業。
由於他善理財,人緣好,獲得了知縣吳次竹的賞識,聘為幕僚,被時人稱為「錢谷師爺」。
1915年,貝哉安參與創辦了上海銀行,他還協助創辦了中國第一家新型旅行社——中國旅行社,
後來在蘇州成立分社,任經理。
貝哉安的頭腦好,教育更好,他的五個兒子,個個做銀行,個個有出息,
其中最負盛名的,當屬貝哉安的三子貝祖詒,也就是貝聿銘的父親。
貝祖詒東吳大學畢業後,娶了清朝最後一任國子監祭酒的女兒莊氏為妻。
莊氏擅吹笛子,虔心向佛,夫婦伉儷情深。
他們生了六個孩子,三男三女,貝聿銘是長子,生於1917年4月26日。
1930年,莊氏因癌症去世,留下了年僅13歲的貝聿銘和弟弟貝聿昆、貝聿樅以及三個姐妹。
為了盡快從喪妻之痛當中解脫,銀行派遣貝祖詒出訪歐洲。
這是一次命中注定的出訪,40歲的貝祖詒在歐洲邂逅了21歲的蔣士雲。
當時貝祖詒40歲,而蔣士雲僅21歲。貝祖詒很傷心,蔣士雲當時亦很失意。
這位外交家的女兒是當年名動北平的江南名媛,有粉絲在報上發表花痴文,這樣描述她的美麗:
蔣四小姐的美點,在於動作的姿態。凡是她一舉手一投足,不論拿起個杯子來喝茶,或低垂了螓首咽食東西,
一個極小的動作,也都有一個動作的姿態,真如春雲幻變。尤其是在她玉指夾著了香煙,在遐思休憩的時候,她的右肩微聳,左斜垂,手指卷握了個空拳,掌心仰天,香氤繞繚,在蜷擁成勾的眉發間,那迷蒙的眼睛,幽然神往,真好像酒醉了的玉環,朝霧罩籠了黛山一般。
這樣美麗的蔣四小姐,當時輸給了「趙四小姐」——是的,她曾經和少帥張學良戀愛,差一點終成眷屬。
在聽說了趙四小姐的故事之後,蔣四小姐傷心欲絕,並且及時中止了這場不靠譜的戀愛,前往歐洲求學。
蔣四小姐當然不會料到,與張學良的失之交臂,也許是上帝對她的眷顧;
她當然更加不會料到,她和趙四小姐,將會在幾十年之後,再經歷一場大戰,那時,她將成為勝利者,
張學良對唐德剛這樣評價自己的歷任女友:
于鳳至是最好的夫人,
趙一荻是最患難的妻子,
貝太太(蔣士雲)是最可愛的女友。
我的最愛在紐約。
蔣士雲和貝祖貽,一對傷心人,他鄉故知,居然碰出愛的火花。
雖然蔣士雲的父母非常反對這門婚事,自己的千金寶貝居然去人家家裡做六個孩子的後媽。
但最終,他們還是順從了女兒。
1932年春,貝祖詒和蔣士雲在巴黎舉行了婚禮,這場婚姻非常幸福,
蔣士雲陪伴著貝祖詒,到他生命的最後一刻。
貝聿銘的夫人陸書華是衛斯理學院校友。因為天生低調內斂,她的故事一直不為我們所知,
連她的閨名,也一度被寫作盧艾琳或盧愛玲(英文名Ellien Loo)。
根據《紐約時報》2014年6月25日的陸書華訃聞報道,陸的家世比貝聿銘要顯赫很多。
她的家族譜里,有唐紹儀這樣的大人物(是陸舅母的父親)。
《三聯生活週刊》採訪了貝聿銘的兒子貝禮中,在他的回憶,陸夫人是貝家的主幹。
她積極推動家庭成員的聚會,對於貝聿銘的作品,她也經常能給到很直率的評價——
她在哈佛學的是景觀設計,但她選擇做個普通家庭主婦,生一堆孩子,跟著丈夫滿世界跑,
每次陪著丈夫出席活動,低調而得體。
《紐約時報》訃聞:
她對丈夫和家人的支持是他們最為珍惜的。她為丈夫的事業提供了明智的忠告,
同時,這些忠告現在聽來都是溫暖而幽默的。在大家的心裡,她永遠是那麼優雅和知性。
一開始,貝聿銘並不打算從事建築。
他的父親希望他子承父業,做個銀行家——像他的弟弟們一樣。但他拒絕了。
但不可否認的是,家族的商業背景,對於貝聿銘的影響是巨大的——
我覺得他不是藝術家風格的建築師,他擅長交際,擅長揣摩客戶的服務。
比如,在甘迺迪國家圖書館這個項目上,賈桂琳·甘尼迪本來的人選有好幾個,
貝聿銘在對這位第一夫人的性格研究方面,下了不少心思。
他重新佈置了自己的事務所,弄來花花草草,要求每一位工作人員都西裝筆挺,儀表考究。
相比之下,另兩位候選人則堅持「做自己」,他們以為只要看作品本身就夠了。結果,貝聿銘贏了。
有人問貝聿銘,他的項目收費總是昂貴。貝聿銘的回答是:
I. M PEI(pay), not I.M FREE。
他始終強調自己的中國人身份,在路易斯·康的兒子為父親拍攝的一部紀錄片《我的建築師》(My Architect)中,
貝聿銘有一段這樣的對話:
問:你的成功率很高?
回答:是的。但可能是因為我更加耐心,因為我是個中國人。
事實上,貝聿銘曾經有考慮過回中國,他的父親阻止了他。
這個一念之間的舉動,讓貝聿銘和貝氏家族的命運走向了相反的方向。
貝氏家族是中共上台後最早一批捐獻財產的,銀行交出去了,電力、燃油和染料的經營權移交了,
在法租界南陽路170號的貝家花園洋房搬空了,獅子林一晚之間遣散了32位僕人,然後也上交了。
然而,所有人都沒有逃脫反右的厄運。
貝聿銘的族弟貝重威,因右派入罪判刑22年,發配到黑龍江勞教。妹妹貝聿琳想方設法弄了點白糖寄給他。
後來,他對大家說,要是沒有這白糖,他肯定已經自殺了。
貝聿琳自己的日子也不好過。她的銀行家丈夫儘管自降工資,仍然是「歷史反革命」,
每次參加批鬥會回來,貝聿琳就對丈夫說,對你就一個要求,不要死。
他的女婿梁成錦回憶,有一次,他從批鬥會回家,孩子們看他掛著大牌子,就幫他摘下來,掛牌子的鉛絲把他勒出了深紫色的印記。大家都很難過,一時間不知道說什麼,他自己卻「一彎腰從菜籃子里挑了幾棵開著黃花的菜芯,又順手從地上揀了一個瓶子,插好了往桌上一擺」,他說:
有花就有春天,有花就有希望!
不是所有人都有贝聿琳夫妇的坚强意志。
貝聿銘的九姑姑貝娟琳嫁給了吳同文,後者在岳父的幫助下成了上海灘新一代顏料大王。
貝小姐的嫁妝之一是上海的綠屋,曾經被稱為遠東第一豪宅——設計者是大名鼎鼎的鄔達克。
1966年,吳同文和他的姨太太在綠屋自殺了。
文革結束後,有關單位表示要歸還綠屋,貝娟琳拒絕了,她說,就算換了房子,他們的時代也已經過去了。
1974年,貝聿銘夫婦跟隨美國建築師協會代表團第一次回到蘇州老家。
他面對的是「100多位穿著破舊藍黑衣服的親戚」,一時間說不出話來。
事後,貝聿銘對同事說:
我在他們面前沒有一絲一毫的優越感。
他們當中任何一個人可以是我,我可以是他們當中的任何一人,一切都是歷史的偶然。
--取材自《山河歲月》

  • 郭希瑜 查到這篇文章. https://ressrc.com/....../peis-102-years-is-a-modern....../
    最下方有參考資料 :
    参考文献:1.波姆(著),林兵(译),《贝聿铭谈贝聿铭》,文汇出版社迈克

    2.尔·坎贝尔(著),倪卫红(译),《贝聿铭传》,中国文学出版社

    3.梁成锦,《大潮下的贝家——一个600年望族90年的变迁》,《城市中国》,2007年19期



 貝聿銘,建築師眼花繚亂的建築大師,死於102 貝聿銘於1989年在巴黎盧浮宮設計的玻璃金字塔外,是他最著名的佣金之一。“如果有一件事我知道我做錯了,那就是盧浮宮,”他說。 信用 Marc Riboud / Magnum照片   圖片 貝聿銘於1989年在巴黎盧浮宮設計的玻璃金字塔外,是他最著名的佣金之一。“如果有一件事我知道我做錯了,那就是盧浮宮,”他說。信用積分Marc Riboud / Magnum照片 由保羅·戈德伯格  2019年5月16日  122 貝聿銘於週四早些時候在曼哈頓的家中去世,他開始了為紐約一家房地產開發商設計建築物的長期職業生涯並最終成為世界上最受尊敬的建築師之一。他是102歲。  他的兒子李頌培證實了他的死,他也是一名建築師,被稱為桑迪。他說他的父親最近和家人共進晚餐慶祝了他的生日。  最著名的是設計華盛頓國家美術館的東樓和巴黎盧浮宮入口處的玻璃金字塔,裴先生是為數不多的對房地產開發商,企業領袖和藝術同樣具有吸引力的建築師之一。博物館董事會(第三組,當然,通常由前兩個成員組成)。他的所有作品 - 從他的商業摩天大樓到他的藝術博物館 - 代表了前沿和保守派之間的謹慎平衡。  裴先生加入了華盛頓的國家美術館,被稱為東樓,由大塊的田納西大理石製成,圍繞著一個三角形庭院。這是一個罕見的現代主義結構的例子,看起來如此永久和精心製作,即使是傳統建築的愛好者也被打敗了。 信用 Carol M. Highsmith / Buyenlarge,來自Getty Images 


圖片 裴先生加入了華盛頓的國家美術館,被稱為東樓,由大塊的田納西大理石製成,圍繞著一個三角形庭院。這是一個罕見的現代主義結構的例子,看起來如此永久和精心製作,即使是傳統建築的愛好者也被打敗了。信用Carol M. Highsmith / Buyenlarge,來自Getty Images [ 參見貝聿銘最重要的六部作品。]

裴先生仍然是一位忠誠的現代主義者,雖然他的任何建築都不可能被稱為傳統的或傳統的,但他的特殊品牌的現代主義 - 清潔,保留,銳利和毫無歉意的使用簡單的幾何形狀和對紀念性的渴望 - 有時似乎是一種倒退,至少與最新的建築趨勢相比。


  這幾乎沒有困擾他。他說,他對建築最重視的是它“經得起時間的考驗”。  他堅持認為,他不僅要解決問題,還要製造“一種思想體系結構。”他補充說,他擔心,“這些想法和專業實踐並不足夠。”  裴先生出生於中國,並於20世紀30年代移居美國,於1948年獲得威廉·澤肯多夫(William Zeckendorf)的聘用,此前不久,他獲得了哈佛大學建築學專業的研究生學位,負責監督Zeckendorf公司生產的建築設計,韋伯和克納普。

 吉米卡特總統於1978年在華盛頓致力於國家美術館的東樓。他從左邊加入了畫廊總監卡特布朗。裴先生; Bunny Mellon,他的家人為這座建築物捐款; 和副總統Walter F. Mondale的妻子Joan Mondale。 信用 美聯社   圖片

吉米卡特總統於1978年在華盛頓致力於國家美術館的東樓。他從左邊加入了畫廊總監卡特布朗。裴先生; Bunny Mellon,他的家人為這座建築物捐款; 和副總統Walter F. Mondale的妻子Joan Mondale。信用美聯社 廣告

 在他的大多數哈佛同學認為自己很幸運能夠設計一套一戶人家的時候,裴先生很快發現自己正在設計高層建築,他利用這種經驗作為跳板來建立他自己的公司IM Pei&Associates於1955年與他在Webb&Knapp組裝的團隊Henry Cobb和Eason Leonard一起成立。

在早年,IM Pei&Associates主要為Zeckendorf執行項目,包括紐約的Kips Bay Plaza,於1963年完工; 費城社會山塔(1964年); 和紐約的銀塔(1967年)。他們的網格混凝土外牆都很引人注目。  該公司在1960年完全獨立於Webb&Knapp,當時裴先生是一位修養的男人,他低調的態度和輕鬆的魅力掩蓋了激烈的競爭野心,贏得了與Zeckendorf毫無關係的重大項目的佣金。其中包括1967年完成的科羅拉多州博爾德國家大氣研究中心,以及錫拉丘茲埃弗森藝術博物館和得梅因藝術中心,兩者均於1968年完工。  他們是他設計的一系列博物館中的第一個,其中包括東樓(1978)和盧浮宮金字塔(1989)以及克利夫蘭的搖滾名人堂和博物館,他為此設計了相當多的博物館。在1995年的一個巨大的玻璃帳篷。這可能是他最令人驚訝的委託。  編輯精選 Netflix首部精彩素描喜劇秀的精彩奇觀 從'Smallville'到性愛崇拜:女演員Allison Mack的墮落 為什麼阿波羅10號從月球上停止了47,000英尺


國家美術館項目幫助裴先生贏得了改造巴黎盧浮宮的委員會。這個70英尺高的玻璃金字塔震驚了保護主義者,但公眾最終對此感到溫暖。 Credit Claude Paris / Associated Press   圖片  國家美術館項目幫助裴先生贏得了改造巴黎盧浮宮的委員會。這個70英尺高的玻璃金字塔震驚了保護主義者,但公眾最終對此感到溫暖。Credit Claude Paris / Associated Press 裴先生,不是搖滾樂迷,最初拒絕了那份工作。在他改變主意後,他準備迎接挑戰,通過與Rolling Stone的出版人Jann Wenner一起參加搖滾音樂會來表達音樂的精神。

克利夫蘭項目不會是裴先生最後一次不太可能的博物館委員會:他的博物館全部作品將於2008年在卡塔爾多哈設計伊斯蘭藝術博物館,這是裴先生津津樂道的挑戰。作為西方抽象表現主義藝術的長期收藏家,他承認對伊斯蘭藝術知之甚少。  廣告 

與岩石博物館一樣,裴先生認為卡塔爾委員會是一個了解他沒有理解的文化的機會。他通過閱讀先知穆罕默德的傳記開始他的研究,然後開始在世界各地參觀偉大的伊斯蘭建築。  大膽但務實 雖然Zeckendorf建築的華夫餅狀混凝土立面是他的早期標誌,但Pei先生很快就從混凝土轉向更具雕塑感但同樣現代主義的方法。在他漫長的職業生涯中,他結合了使用大膽,自信的形式與他在Zeckendorf多年時期出生的實用主義的意願,並且在設計商業項目和在其他建築領域為自己命名之間交替。
克利夫蘭搖滾名人堂,裴先生最令人驚訝的佣金之一。 Credit Mark Duncan / Associated Press   圖片  克利夫蘭搖滾名人堂,裴先生最令人驚訝的佣金之一。Credit Mark Duncan / Associated Press

 除了他的許多藝術博物館外,他還設計了音樂廳,學術建築,醫院,辦公樓和市政大樓,如達拉斯市政廳,於1977年完工; 波士頓的約翰肯尼迪圖書館於1979年完成; 和紐約西奈山醫院的古根海姆館於1992年完工。  (I M Pei&Associates最終成為I M Pei&Partners,後來命名為Pei,Cobb和Freed。)  當裴先生被邀請設計國家美術館東樓時,他有機會展示他的信念,即現代主義能夠生產具有莊嚴感,永久感和最大傳統結構的大眾吸引力的建築物。 。當這座建築於1978年開業時,“紐約時報”的高級建築評論家阿達·路易斯·赫克斯特德稱讚它是這個時代最重要的建築,她稱裴先生,至少暗示,他是卓越的建築師。時間。  大多數其他評論家也讚揚裴先生的玻璃和大理石的棱角結構,由與約翰羅素教皇1941年的原始國家美術館大樓相同的田納西大理石建造,重新塑造成圍繞三角形庭院的清晰,棱角分明的建築。許多評論家說,裴先生已經找到了超越現代建築的休閒,時空和寒冷的方法,並創造了一個既大膽又富有吸引力,甚至令人振奮的建築。

維多利亞港的天際線由香港島沿岸的商業大廈照亮。中國銀行大樓中心由裴先生設計,看起來像一個棱角分明的竹筍,於1989年完工。 信用 Anat Givon / Associated Press   圖片  維多利亞港的天際線由香港島沿岸的商業大廈照亮。中國銀行大樓中心由裴先生設計,看起來像一個棱角分明的竹筍,於1989年完工。信用Anat Givon / Associated Press 1979年,在國家美術館建成後的第二年,裴先生獲得了美國建築師協會的最高榮譽金獎。  然而,在他在華盛頓獲得喝彩的同時,裴先生正在從他那一代的任何建築師在任何地方遇到的最具破壞性的挫折中恢復過來:他最顯眼的項目之一,即700-幾乎徹底失敗在波士頓科普利廣場的腳高約翰漢考克大廈。  由他的搭檔亨利科佈設計的薄而優雅的藍色玻璃板,它於1973年接近完工,當時玻璃板開始從其立面彈出。他們很快被膠合板取代,但在問題來源被發現之前,近三分之一的玻璃杯已經脫落,給裴先生及其公司帶來了專業的尷尬和巨大的法律責任。

專家們認為,這個錯誤並不在裴設計中,而在於玻璃本身:漢考克大廈是最早使用新型反光雙層玻璃的高層建築之一。   圖片  裴先生遠不是設計肯尼迪圖書館和博物館的明顯選擇,但是當杰奎琳·肯尼迪於1964年在他的辦公室拜訪他時,她對博學和優雅禮儀印象深刻,她當場選擇了他。在圖書館的受託人和董事會議上,裴先生與肯尼迪夫人和羅伯特肯尼迪笑了笑。信用埃迪·豪斯納/紐約時報 該建築最終贏得了無數獎項,包括美國建築師協會的25年獎。但是,在Hancock的麻煩得以休息之前,它需要花費8年的法律糾紛,數百萬美元以及在立面上更換所有10,344塊玻璃,這座建築可以被認為是20世紀末最美麗的摩天大樓之一。世紀。


這些問題推遲了三年的開放,其臨時膠合板窗口不斷提醒波士頓所有的麻煩,這使得貝聿和合夥人這麼多客戶花費裴先生幾乎不得不關閉公司。  “玻璃公司有很多錢,漢考克有很多錢,但我們沒有很多錢,”他在2007年告訴泰晤士報。  儘管華盛頓國家美術館取得了勝利,但是為了解決漢考克問題的長期鬥爭,以及危機的影響,使得20世紀70年代成為了裴先生苦苦澀的十年。  1973年6月,工人們在波士頓裴先生的約翰漢考克大廈用膠合板取代了大量的玻璃窗玻璃。儘管故障出現在玻璃而不是建築中,但這一事件對裴先生來說是一次毀滅性的挫折。 。  Credit Bill Chaplis / Associated Press   圖片  1973年6月,工人們在波士頓裴先生的約翰漢考克大廈用膠合板取代了大量的玻璃窗玻璃。儘管故障出現在玻璃而不是建築中,但這一事件對裴先生來說是一次毀滅性的挫折。 。  Credit Bill Chaplis / Associated Press 雖然他的公司缺乏他所掙扎的大公司的資金是正確的,但他並非沒有大量資源,至少對於建築師而言。  銀行家的兒子 Ieoh Ming Pei於1917年4月26日出生於廣州(現廣州),是中國領先的銀行家之一Tsuyee Pei的兒子。在他還是個嬰兒的時候,他的父親將家搬到了香港,擔任中國銀行香港分行的首席職位,而當時他是9歲時,他的父親負責上海的大分行。他記得被25層酒店的建設迷住了。  他在2007年回憶說:“我無法抗拒地看著這個洞。這就是我知道自己想建造的時候。”  廣告   他在一個充滿中國傳統的富裕家庭中長大 - 他在一個鄉村度過了夏天,他父親的家庭已經生活了500多年,學習了祖先崇拜的儀式 - 以及西方的成熟。  裴先生於1970年在曼哈頓麥迪遜大道辦公室工作。 感謝 Ernie Sisto /紐約時報   圖片  裴先生於1970年在曼哈頓麥迪遜大道辦公室工作。感謝Ernie Sisto /紐約時報 他決定在美國上大學,就讀於賓夕法尼亞大學。但當他得出結論,他不熟悉古典繪畫技術,然後在賓夕法尼亞大學任教時,他轉學到麻省理工學院,並於1940年獲得建築學學士學位。  在父親的建議下,他擔心戰爭的威脅和中國共產主義革命的可能性日益增加,他推遲了回國的計劃。相反,他就讀於哈佛大學設計研究生院,在德國現代主義建築師沃爾特·格羅皮烏斯(Walter Gropius)的指導下學習,他是包豪斯學院的創始人。  發現戰爭期間哈佛大學的人數相對較少 - “這是我,一個中國公民和女士們”,他曾回憶說 - 他決定參加戰爭,並自願為國防研究委員會工作。新澤西州普林斯頓,他成為了融合炸彈的專家。  “他們認為,如果你知道如何建造建築物,你就知道如何摧毀它們,”裴先生說。  當他在麻省理工學院時,裴先生遇到了另一位中國國民艾琳·盧,他於1938年來到美國,在馬薩諸塞州韋爾斯利學院學習藝術。像裴先生一樣,她來自一個傑出的中國家庭。這兩個人在1942年畢業後就結婚了。艾琳裴開始在哈佛大學從事園林建築研究,而她的丈夫則在1946年獲得高級建築學位。  裴先生設計了大型公共補貼項目,如Kips Bay Towers(1963),這是一個曼哈頓綜合體,其網格澆築的現澆混凝土外牆證明,混凝土是大型城市住宅的可接受材料。 信用 鮑勃玻璃/紐約時報   圖片  裴先生設計了大型公共補貼項目,如Kips Bay Towers(1963),這是一個曼哈頓綜合體,其網格澆築的現澆混凝土外牆證明,混凝土是大型城市住宅的可接受材料。信用鮑勃玻璃/紐約時報 廣告   他曾在哈佛大學任教,併計劃及時返回中國。但後來他被Zeckendorf接洽,他正在尋找一位才華橫溢的年輕建築師來領導一個新的內部設計團隊。  裴先生,精緻和上流,從表面上來說,與傲慢的澤克多夫不可能有更大的不同。但這些男人有著雄心勃勃的野心,對法國葡萄酒的熱愛以及建築可以改善城市的信念。裴先生決定搬到紐約。他和他的妻子以及兩個年幼的兒子離開了馬薩諸塞州的劍橋,並在曼哈頓比克曼廣場的一套公寓裡定居。  對於裴先生的職業生涯來說,Zeckendorf時代是一個令人興奮的開端。不久之後,他聘請了一位在哈佛大學的前學生Henry Cobb,他將與他保持60多年的關係。建築師Ulrich Franzen的職業生涯始於Webb & Knapp的 Pei先生,該建築部門負責紐約,華盛頓,蒙特利爾,丹佛,波士頓和其他城市的大型項目。  然而,無論威廉·澤肯多夫對裴先生的設計多麼投入,他仍然是一名商業房地產開發商,裴先生不想將自己的整個職業生涯都花在別人身上。隨著Zeckendorf的祝福,他開始尋求一些外部佣金sic,包括台灣的Luce Memorial Chapel和麻省理工學院的綠色地球sic Green科學大樓,他逐漸開始將自己與他的讚助人分開。  裴先生最早的作品之一是紐約大學的銀塔,這是他所謂的“混凝土系列”的一部分。 信用 Ozier Muhammad /紐約時報   圖片  裴先生最早的作品之一是紐約大學的銀塔,這是他所謂的“混凝土系列”的一部分。
信用Ozier Muhammad /紐約時報 當Zeckendorf的帝國在1960年遇到嚴重的財務問題時,這成為了將IM Pei&Associates變成一家完全獨立的公司的良好藉口。  肯尼迪的選擇 裴先生很快開始收集大型和小型建築作業,其中包括現在紐約約翰肯尼迪機場的國家航空公司航站樓,錫拉丘茲大學的紐豪斯通信學院以及哥倫布的克萊奧羅傑斯紀念圖書館。 ,印第安納州,一個以其建築而聞名的城市。  廣告   但真正將裴先生推到美國建築師前沿的委員會是建造一座建築,需要15年的時間才能建成,並且會給他帶來平等的勝利感和挫敗感:約翰肯尼迪圖書館。  他於1964年被杰奎琳·肯尼迪(後來的奧納西斯)選中,他喜歡他年輕的事實 - 他和約翰·肯尼迪相隔一個月出生 - 並且才剛剛開始進入他自己的世界。他對Louis Kahn,Philip Johnson,Gordon Bunshaft和Paul Rudolph的選擇清楚地表明,他不再被視為開發人員的建築師,而是他自己的主要人才。  裴先生和開發人員William Zeckendorf Jr.離開了1989年在曼哈頓建議的攝政酒店(現在是四季酒店)的模型。在這裡,裴先生試圖喚起浪漫,後退的形式戰前的紐約摩天大樓。 信用 sic Fred R. Conrad /紐約時報   圖片

裴先生和開發人員William Zeckendorf Jr.離開了1989年在曼哈頓建議的攝政酒店(現在是四季酒店)的模型。在這裡,裴先生試圖喚起浪漫,後退的形式戰前的紐約摩天大樓。信用Fred R. Conrad /紐約時報 但是對圖書館在劍橋的原址進行的政治反對推遲了該項目多年,到建造時,波士頓港哥倫比亞角的新網站和縮小設計都代表了重大的妥協。  在肯尼迪圖書館計劃的這些年裡,Pei公司發展迅速。還有更多的博物館,如康奈爾大學的赫伯特·約翰遜博物館,以及波士頓基督教科學中心等大型城市綜合體,以及裴先生在波士頓最大的名聲,約翰漢考克大廈的項目和博物館將給他帶來他最大的讚譽,國家美術館的東樓。

 隨著他的公司規模和聲望的增長 - 最終將僱傭300名員工 - 裴先生似乎成為典型的紐約人。他和他的妻子和家人,包括三個兒子和一個女兒,搬到薩頓廣場的一個聯排別墅,面對東河,他在那裡度過餘生。他成為戰後美國藝術的狂熱收藏家,他的聯排別墅包含莫里斯路易斯,杜布菲和德庫寧的作品; 他還為他的家人在威徹斯特郡的紐約州卡托納設計了一個週末房子,在那裡他安裝了安東尼卡羅的16英尺高的雕塑。

裴先生從未放下與中國的聯繫。他的孩子們都被賦予了中國名字,當他在1983年獲得普利茲克獎時,被廣泛認為是生活建築師可以獲得的最高榮譽,他利用10萬美元的獎金為中國建築學生設立了獎學金。

 裴先生於1974年首次回中國,並於20世紀80年代設計了北京郊外的香山酒店。(他說,這不是他最成功的建築之一。) 信用 劉香成劉/美聯社   圖片  裴先生於1974年首次回中國,並於20世紀80年代設計了北京郊外的香山酒店。(他說,這不是他最成功的建築之一。)信用劉香成劉/美聯社
他的長子T'ing Chung是一名城市規劃師,他於2003年去世。他的妻子艾琳於2014年去世。除了他的兒子李頌,他被稱為桑迪,他還有另一個兒子倖存下來, Chien Chung,也是一名建築師,被稱為滴滴; 他的女兒Liane; 和孫子孫女。

裴先生的小兒子於1992年與他一起組建了自己的公司Pei Partnership,此時,貝聿銘開始撇開他創立的公司,並將其職業生涯的大部分時間用於與他的兒子們一起工作。  直到1974年,他才回到中國,當時他回到美國建築師協會組織的文化交流之旅。在那裡,他毫不猶豫地批評他所看到的平庸,受蘇聯影響的建築,並且他發表了一個演講,他敦促中國人回顧他們自己的傳統,而不是“盲目追隨東歐模式”。
批評並沒有阻止中國政府邀請當時世界上最著名的中國出生建築師裴先生回來,這次是在北京市中心設計一批高層酒店。他拒絕了,說他擔心這樣的建築物會毀壞這座城市。  1992年,Pei先生開始與他的兒子Chien Chung Pei(被稱為Didi)和Li Chung Pei(被稱為Sandi)在Pei Partnership Architects工作。其中最引人注目的項目是多哈伊斯蘭藝術博物館。 感謝 Hassan Ammar / Associated Press   圖片  1992年,Pei先生開始與他的兒子Chien Chung Pei(被稱為Didi)和Li Chung Pei(被稱為Sandi)在Pei Partnership Architects工作。其中最引人注目的項目是多哈伊斯蘭藝術博物館。感謝Hassan Ammar / Associated Press

政府不願意讓他如此輕易地離開,然後向他提供了一個城外的農村地點,並要求他在那裡設計一個度假酒店。這次他說是的,並為Fragrant Hill製作了設計,這是一座龐大的建築,他試圖將其他建築的幾何現代主義與中國傳統建築的元素結合起來。  廣告   這是裴先生為了承認許多建築師在重用歷史形式方面日益增長的興趣所做的一些嘗試中的第一次。同樣,他後來在曼哈頓中城設計了一家高層酒店 - 麗晶酒店(現為四季酒店),試圖喚起戰前紐約摩天大樓的浪漫,後退形式。  香山的開幕是一項重大的國際盛事。

杰奎琳奧納西斯與裴先生的友誼在肯尼迪圖書館延遲多年之後依然保持強勢,國家美術館館長卡特布朗也出席了會議。但裴先生後來承認,他認為這座建築結構不佳,維護不善,令人失望。  1982年,裴先生在中國有一個非常不同的機會,當時他在香港的中國銀行行長,他父親曾經經營過的銀行,前往紐約與Tsuyee Pei會面。離開中國,住在曼哈頓。他們的任務是向裴先生展示中國傳統禮儀,如果他同意允許他們邀請兒子為香港銀行設計一座新的摩天大樓總部。(Tsuyee Pei強烈反對共產黨中國政府,但他並沒有妨礙他兒子接受這份工作。)  裴先生和他的妻子艾琳,以及總理讓·克勞德·容克在2006年在盧森堡舉行的頒獎典禮上。這對夫婦於1942年結婚,育有四個孩子。 信用 Harald Tittel /圖片聯盟和dpa,通過美聯社 

圖片  裴先生和他的妻子艾琳,以及總理讓·克勞德·容克在2006年在盧森堡舉行的頒獎典禮上。這對夫婦於1942年結婚,育有四個孩子。信用Harald Tittel /圖片聯盟和dpa,通過美聯社

 它將成為裴先生最著名的塔樓之一,由70層高的三角形和鑽石形狀組成,由玻璃和鋼製成。  金字塔作為門戶 然而,裴先生將在法國創造他最大的國際商標,但項目規模較小但爭議較大。
20世紀80年代初,國家美術館東樓的崇拜者弗朗索瓦·密特朗(FrançoisMitterand)邀請裴先生更新和擴建盧浮宮博物館,該博物館急需翻新以容納大量遊客。  裴先生提議在古老的Cour Napoleon中心建造一座玻璃金字塔,作為博物館的新主入口。他很快發現自己處於國際爭議的中心,被指責破壞了世界上最偉大的地標之一。

   他認為他的玻璃金字塔只是傳統形式的更新版本,他重新設計的庭院受到法國景觀設計師Le Notre幾何作品的影響。換句話說,它是嚴格理性的,在這個意義上講是經典的法語。  裴先生於2008年在曼哈頓薩頓廣場的家中。作為一名在上海的男孩,他對25層酒店的建設著迷。“我無法抗拒地看著這個洞,”他回憶道。“這時候,我決定我想建立” 信用 托尼 Cenicola /紐約時報   圖片  裴先生於2008年在曼哈頓薩頓廣場的家中。作為一名在上海的男孩,他對25層酒店的建設著迷。“我無法抗拒地看著這個洞,”他回憶道。“這時候,我決定我想建立”

 信用托尼Cenicola /紐約時報

然而,這一天帶來的不是裴先生的論點,儘管可能是真實的,但是密特朗總統的決心。金字塔在1989年春天開放,完成的建築的優雅,更不用說它的幾何精度,贏得了大多數(如果不是全部)其對手。  在幾年之內,金字塔已經成為一個被重新充滿活力的巴黎的公認和普遍讚賞的象徵。就像肯尼迪圖書館,約翰漢考克大廈和20世紀80年代另一個有爭議的Pei項目,紐約的Jacob Javits會議中心,它不僅是IM Pei的設計才能,也是他耐心和毅力的衡量標準。

 在退休時,裴先生一直渴望獲得建築和藝術的新聞,直到去年,他繼續在市中心偶爾旅行,與朋友共進午餐,並消費他的紅色波爾多份額。  2017年,他的100歲生日,由他的孩子們在洛克菲勒中心頂部的彩虹廳舉行精心製作的黑色領帶晚宴,在那裡他被許多世界頂尖建築師敬酒,其中一些人已經開始了他們的職業生涯對他來說,還有一群朋友,其中包括美國華人社區的傑出成員,他們認為他是最傑出的人物。
在他最後一個重要的建築項目 - 多哈伊斯蘭藝術博物館的角形形狀中,他掏出一塊巨大蛋糕上的蠟燭,裴先生笑著說。



更正: 2019年5月16日 這篇ob告的早期版本誤認為裴先生的兒子證實了他的死亡。他是李鍾培,而不是簡鐘培。  本文的一個版本出現在印刷品上 2019年5月17日,在第一個1 紐約版的大標題是:大師的高樓眼花繚亂的世界


I.M. Pei, Master Architect Whose Buildings Dazzled the World, Dies at 102

I.M. Pei in 1989 outside the glass pyramid he designed at the Louvre in Paris, one of his most famous commissions. “If there’s one thing I know I didn’t do wrong, it’s the Louvre,” he said.CreditMarc Riboud/Magnum Photos





ImageI.M. Pei in 1989 outside the glass pyramid he designed at the Louvre in Paris, one of his most famous commissions. “If there’s one thing I know I didn’t do wrong, it’s the Louvre,” he said.CreditCreditMarc Riboud/Magnum Photos


By Paul Goldberger
May 16, 2019


I. M. Pei, who began his long career designing buildings for a New York real estate developer and ended it as one of the most revered architects in the world, died early Thursday at his home in Manhattan. He was 102.

His death was confirmed by his son Li Chung Pei, who is also an architect and known as Sandi. He said his father had recently celebrated his birthday with a family dinner.

Best known for designing the East Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington and the glass pyramid at the entrance to the Louvre in Paris, Mr. Pei was one of the few architects who were equally attractive to real estate developers, corporate chieftains and art museum boards (the third group, of course, often made up of members of the first two). And all of his work — from his commercial skyscrapers to his art museums — represented a careful balance of the cutting edge and the conservative.

Mr. Pei’s addition to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, known as the East Building, is made from massive blocks of Tennessee marble arranged around a triangular courtyard. It was a rare example of a modernist structure that appeared so permanent and well crafted that even lovers of traditional architecture were smitten.CreditCarol M. Highsmith/Buyenlarge, via Getty Images





ImageMr. Pei’s addition to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, known as the East Building, is made from massive blocks of Tennessee marble arranged around a triangular courtyard. It was a rare example of a modernist structure that appeared so permanent and well crafted that even lovers of traditional architecture were smitten.CreditCarol M. Highsmith/Buyenlarge, via Getty Images


[See six of I.M. Pei’s most important works.]

Mr. Pei remained a committed modernist, and while none of his buildings could ever be called old-fashioned or traditional, his particular brand of modernism — clean, reserved, sharp-edged and unapologetic in its use of simple geometries and its aspirations to monumentality — sometimes seemed to be a throwback, at least when compared with the latest architectural trends.


This hardly bothered him. What he valued most in architecture, he said, was that it “stand the test of time.”

He maintained that he wanted not just to solve problems but also to produce “an architecture of ideas.” He worried, he added, “that ideas and professional practice do not intersect enough.”

Mr. Pei, who was born in China and moved to the United States in the 1930s, was hired by William Zeckendorf in 1948, shortly after he received his graduate degree in architecture from Harvard, to oversee the design of buildings produced by Zeckendorf’s firm, Webb & Knapp.

President Jimmy Carter dedicated the East Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington in 1978. He was joined by, from left, Carter Brown, director of the gallery; Mr. Pei; Bunny Mellon, whose family donated money for the structure; and Joan Mondale, wife of Vice President Walter F. Mondale.CreditAssociated Press



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President Jimmy Carter dedicated the East Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington in 1978. He was joined by, from left, Carter Brown, director of the gallery; Mr. Pei; Bunny Mellon, whose family donated money for the structure; and Joan Mondale, wife of Vice President Walter F. Mondale.CreditAssociated Press


At a time when most of his Harvard classmates considered themselves fortunate to get to design a single-family house or two, Mr. Pei quickly found himself engaged in the design of high-rise buildings, and he used that experience as a springboard to establish his own firm, I. M. Pei & Associates, which he set up in 1955 with Henry Cobb and Eason Leonard, the team he had assembled at Webb & Knapp.

In its early years, I. M. Pei & Associates mainly executed projects for Zeckendorf, including Kips Bay Plaza in New York, finished in 1963; Society Hill Towers in Philadelphia (1964); and Silver Towers in New York (1967). All were notable for their gridded concrete facades.

The firm became fully independent from Webb & Knapp in 1960, by which time Mr. Pei, a cultivated man whose understated manner and easy charm masked an intense, competitive ambition, was winning commissions for major projects that had nothing to do with Zeckendorf. Among these were the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., completed in 1967, and the Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse and the Des Moines Art Center, both finished in 1968.

They were the first in a series of museums he designed that would come to include the East Building (1978) and the Louvre pyramid (1989) as well as the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland, for which he designed what amounted to a huge glass tent in 1995. It was perhaps his most surprising commission.

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The National Gallery project helped Mr. Pei win the commission to renovate the Louvre in Paris. The 70-foot-high glass pyramid appalled preservationists, but the public eventually warmed to it.CreditClaude Paris/Associated Press




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The National Gallery project helped Mr. Pei win the commission to renovate the Louvre in Paris. The 70-foot-high glass pyramid appalled preservationists, but the public eventually warmed to it.CreditClaude Paris/Associated Press


Mr. Pei, not a rock ’n’ roll fan, initially turned down that job. After he changed his mind, he prepared for the challenge of expressing the spirit of the music by traveling to rock concerts with Jann Wenner, the publisher of Rolling Stone.

The Cleveland project would not be Mr. Pei’s last unlikely museum commission: His museum oeuvre would culminate in the call to design the Museum of Islamic Art, in Doha, Qatar, in 2008, a challenge Mr. Pei accepted with relish. A longtime collector of Western Abstract Expressionist art, he admitted to knowing little about Islamic art.


As with the rock museum, Mr. Pei saw the Qatar commission as an opportunity to learn about a culture he did not claim to understand. He began his research by reading a biography of the Prophet Muhammad, and then commenced a tour of great Islamic architecture around the world.
Bold Yet Pragmatic

While the waffle-like concrete facades of the Zeckendorf buildings were an early signature of his, Mr. Pei soon moved beyond concrete to a more sculptural but equally modernist approach. Throughout his long career he combined a willingness to use bold, assertive forms with a pragmatism born in his years with Zeckendorf, and he alternated between designing commercial projects and making a name for himself in other architectural realms.





The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, one of Mr. Pei’s most surprising commissions.CreditMark Duncan/Associated Press




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The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, one of Mr. Pei’s most surprising commissions.CreditMark Duncan/Associated Press


Besides his many art museums, he designed concert halls, academic structures, hospitals, office towers and civic buildings like the Dallas City Hall, completed in 1977; the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, finished in 1979; and the Guggenheim Pavilion of Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, finished in 1992.

(I. M. Pei & Associates eventually became I. M. Pei & Partners and later named Pei, Cobb and Freed.)

When Mr. Pei was invited to design the East Building of the National Gallery of Art, he had the opportunity to demonstrate his belief that modernism was capable of producing buildings with the gravitas, the sense of permanence and the popular appeal of the greatest traditional structures. When the building opened in 1978, Ada Louise Huxtable, the senior architecture critic of The New York Times, hailed it as the most important building of the era, and she called Mr. Pei, at least by implication, the pre-eminent architect of the time.

Most other critics also praised Mr. Pei’s angular structure of glass and marble, constructed out of the same Tennessee marble as John Russell Pope’s original National Gallery Building of 1941, reshaped into a building of crisp, angular forms set around a triangular courtyard. Mr. Pei, many critics said, had found a way to get beyond both the casual, temporal air and the coldness of much modern architecture, and to create a building that was both boldly monumental and warmly inviting, even exhilarating.

The Victoria Harbor skyline is illuminated by commercial buildings along the waterfront of Hong Kong Island. The Bank of China building, center, designed by Mr. Pei to look like an angular bamboo shoot, was completed in 1989.CreditAnat Givon/Associated Press




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The Victoria Harbor skyline is illuminated by commercial buildings along the waterfront of Hong Kong Island. The Bank of China building, center, designed by Mr. Pei to look like an angular bamboo shoot, was completed in 1989.CreditAnat Givon/Associated Press


In 1979, the year after the National Gallery was completed, Mr. Pei received the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects, its highest honor.

At the same time that he was receiving plaudits in Washington, however, Mr. Pei was recovering from one of the most devastating setbacks any architect of his generation had faced anywhere: the nearly total failure of one of his most conspicuous projects, the 700-foot-tall John Hancock Tower at Copley Square in Boston.

A thin, elegant slab of bluish glass designed by his partner Henry Cobb, it was nearing completion in 1973 when sheets of glass began popping out of its facade. They were quickly replaced with plywood, but before the source of the problem could be detected, nearly a third of the glass had fallen out, creating both a professional embarrassment and an enormous legal liability for Mr. Pei and his firm.

The fault, experts believed, was not in the Pei design but in the glass itself: The Hancock Tower was one of the first high-rise buildings to use a new type of reflective, double-paned glass.

Mr. Pei was far from the obvious choice to design the Kennedy library and museum, but when Jacqueline Kennedy visited him in his office in 1964, she was so impressed by his erudition and elegant manners that she chose him on the spot. At a meeting of trustees and directors of the library, Mr. Pei shared a laugh with Mrs. Kennedy and Robert Kennedy.CreditEddie Hausner/The New York Times





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Mr. Pei was far from the obvious choice to design the Kennedy library and museum, but when Jacqueline Kennedy visited him in his office in 1964, she was so impressed by his erudition and elegant manners that she chose him on the spot. At a meeting of trustees and directors of the library, Mr. Pei shared a laugh with Mrs. Kennedy and Robert Kennedy.CreditEddie Hausner/The New York Times


The building ultimately won numerous awards, including the American Institute of Architects’ 25-Year Award. But it took eight years of legal wrangling, millions of dollars and the replacement of all 10,344 panes of glass in the facade before the Hancock’s troubles could be put to rest and the building could be appreciated as one of the most beautiful skyscrapers of the late 20th century.


The problems delayed its opening by three years, its temporary plywood windows a constant reminder to all Boston of its troubles, which cost I. M. Pei & Partners so many clients that Mr. Pei almost had to close the firm.

“The glass company had a lot of money, and Hancock had a lot of money, but we didn’t have a lot of money,” he told The Times in 2007.

The long struggle to resolve the problems at the Hancock, and the fallout from the crisis, made the 1970s, despite the triumph of the National Gallery in Washington, a bittersweet decade for Mr. Pei.

Workmen replaced numerous panes of glass, blown out in high winds, with plywood at Mr. Pei’s John Hancock Tower in Boston in June 1973. Though the fault was in the glass, not the architecture, the episode was a devastating setback for Mr. Pei.

CreditBill Chaplis/Associated Press





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Workmen replaced numerous panes of glass, blown out in high winds, with plywood at Mr. Pei’s John Hancock Tower in Boston in June 1973. Though the fault was in the glass, not the architecture, the episode was a devastating setback for Mr. Pei.

CreditBill Chaplis/Associated Press


Although he was correct that his firm lacked the funds of the huge corporations he was struggling with, he was not without substantial resources, at least for an architect.
Son of a Banker

Ieoh Ming Pei was born in Canton (now Guangzhou) on April 26, 1917, the son of Tsuyee Pei, one of China’s leading bankers. When he was an infant, his father moved the family to Hong Kong to assume the head position at the Hong Kong branch of the Bank of China, and when Ieoh Ming was 9, his father was put in charge of the larger branch in Shanghai. He remembered being fascinated by the construction of a 25-story hotel.

“I couldn’t resist looking into the hole,” he recalled in 2007. “That’s when I knew I wanted to build.”


He was brought up in a well-to-do household that was steeped in both Chinese tradition — he spent summers in a country village, where his father’s family had lived for more than 500 years, learning the rites of ancestor worship — and Western sophistication.

Mr. Pei in his Madison Avenue office in Manhattan in 1970.CreditErnie Sisto/The New York Times




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Mr. Pei in his Madison Avenue office in Manhattan in 1970.CreditErnie Sisto/The New York Times


Deciding to attend college in the United States, he enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania. But when he concluded that he was not up to the classical drawing techniques then being taught at Penn, he transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from which he received a bachelor of architecture degree in 1940.

At the recommendation of his father, who was concerned about the threat of war and the growing possibility of a Communist revolution in China, he postponed his plan to return home. Instead he enrolled at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard, where he studied under the German modernist architect Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus School.

Discovering that there were relatively few men at Harvard during the war years — “It was me, a Chinese national, and the ladies,” he once recalled — he decided to join the war effort and volunteered to work for the National Defense Research Committee in Princeton, N.J., where he became an expert on fusing bombs.

“They figured if you knew how to build buildings, you knew how to destroy them,” Mr. Pei said.

While he was at M.I.T., Mr. Pei met another Chinese national, Eileen Loo, who had come to the United States in 1938 to study art at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. Like Mr. Pei, she was from a distinguished Chinese family. The two married as soon as she graduated, in 1942. Eileen Pei began graduate work in landscape architecture at Harvard while her husband worked toward his advanced architecture degree, which he received in 1946.

Mr. Pei designed large, publicly subsidized projects like Kips Bay Towers (1963), a Manhattan complex whose gridded, poured-in-place concrete facades proved, he said, that concrete was an acceptable material for large-scale urban housing.CreditBob Glass/The New York Times





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Mr. Pei designed large, publicly subsidized projects like Kips Bay Towers (1963), a Manhattan complex whose gridded, poured-in-place concrete facades proved, he said, that concrete was an acceptable material for large-scale urban housing.CreditBob Glass/The New York Times


He taught briefly at Harvard and planned to return to China in time. But then he was approached by Zeckendorf, who was looking for a talented young architect to head a new in-house design team.

Mr. Pei, refined and genteel, could not have been more different on the surface from the brash Zeckendorf. But the men shared a bold ambition, a love of French wine and a belief that architecture could improve cities. Mr. Pei decided to make the move to New York. He, his wife and their two young sons left Cambridge, Mass., and settled in an apartment on Beekman Place in Manhattan.

The Zeckendorf years were a heady beginning for Mr. Pei’s career. Before long he had hired one of his former students at Harvard, Henry Cobb, who would remain associated with him for more than 60 years. The architect Ulrich Franzen also began his career working under Mr. Pei at Webb & Knapp, where the architecture department had charge of large-scale projects in New York, Washington, Montreal, Denver, Boston and other cities.

No matter how committed William Zeckendorf was to Mr. Pei’s designs, however, he was still a commercial real estate developer, and Mr. Pei did not want to spend his entire career working for someone else. With Zeckendorf’s blessing he began to seek some outside commissions, including the Luce Memorial Chapel in Taiwan and the Green Earth Sciences building at M.I.T., and he gradually began to separate himself from his patron.

One of Mr. Pei’s earliest works was The Silver Towers at New York University, part of what he called his “concrete series.”CreditOzier Muhammad/The New York Times





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One of Mr. Pei’s earliest works was The Silver Towers at New York University, part of what he called his “concrete series.”CreditOzier Muhammad/The New York Times


When Zeckendorf’s empire ran into serious financial problems in 1960, that became a good excuse to turn I. M. Pei & Associates into a fully independent firm.
The Choice of the Kennedys

Mr. Pei quickly began to gather both large and small architectural assignments, among them the National Airlines terminal at what is now John F. Kennedy Airport in New York, the Newhouse School of Communications at Syracuse University, and the Cleo Rogers Memorial Library in Columbus, Ind., a city famous for its architecture.


But the commission that truly thrust Mr. Pei into the forefront of American architects was for a building that would take 15 years to build and would bring him a sense of triumph and frustration in equal parts: the John F. Kennedy Library.

He was chosen in 1964 by Jacqueline Kennedy (later Onassis), who liked the fact that he was young — he and John F. Kennedy were born just a month apart — and only beginning to come into his own. His selection over Louis Kahn, Philip Johnson, Gordon Bunshaft and Paul Rudolph made it clear that he was no longer viewed as a developer’s architect but as a major talent on his own.

Mr. Pei, right, and the developer William Zeckendorf Jr., left, with a model of the proposed Regent hotel (now the Four Seasons) in Manhattan in 1989. Here Mr. Pei sought to evoke the romantic, stepped-back forms of prewar New York skyscrapers.CreditFred R. Conrad/The New York Times





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Mr. Pei, right, and the developer William Zeckendorf Jr., left, with a model of the proposed Regent hotel (now the Four Seasons) in Manhattan in 1989. Here Mr. Pei sought to evoke the romantic, stepped-back forms of prewar New York skyscrapers.CreditFred R. Conrad/The New York Times


But political objections to the library’s original site in Cambridge delayed the project for years, and by the time it was built, both the new site, at Columbia Point in Boston Harbor, and the scaled-down design represented major compromises.

During the years the Kennedy Library was being planned, the Pei firm grew rapidly. There were still more museums, like the Herbert F. Johnson Museum at Cornell University, and large urban complexes like the Christian Science Center in Boston, as well as the project that would bring Mr. Pei his greatest notoriety in Boston, the John Hancock Tower, and the museum that would bring him his greatest acclaim, the East Building of the National Gallery.

As his firm grew in size and prestige — it would eventually employ 300 people — Mr. Pei seemed to become the quintessential New Yorker. He and his wife and family, which grew to include three sons and a daughter, moved to a townhouse on Sutton Place, facing the East River, where he remained for the rest of his life. He became an avid collector of postwar American art, and his townhouse contained works by Morris Louis, Dubuffet and de Kooning; he also designed a weekend house for his family in Katonah, N.Y., in Westchester County, where he installed a 16-foot-high sculpture by Anthony Caro.

Mr. Pei never played down his connections to China. His children were all given Chinese names, and when he won the Pritzker Prize in 1983, widely viewed as the highest honor a living architect can receive, he used the $100,000 award to establish a scholarship fund for Chinese architecture students.

Mr. Pei made his first trip back to China in 1974, and in the 1980s he designed the Fragrant Hill Hotel, outside Beijing. (He said it was not one of his most successful buildings.)CreditHeung Shing Liu/Associated Press





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Mr. Pei made his first trip back to China in 1974, and in the 1980s he designed the Fragrant Hill Hotel, outside Beijing. (He said it was not one of his most successful buildings.)CreditHeung Shing Liu/Associated Press


His eldest son, T’ing Chung, an urban planner, died in 2003. His wife of 72 years, Eileen, died in 2014. In addition to his son Li Chung, who is known as Sandi, he is survived by another son, Chien Chung, also an architect, who is known as Didi; his daughter, Liane; and grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Mr. Pei’s younger sons joined with him to form their own firm, the Pei Partnership, in 1992, at which point I. M. Pei began stepping aside from the firm he had founded and devoted most of the last years of his career to working with his sons.

He did not go back to China until 1974, when he returned as part of a cultural exchange tour organized by the American Institute of Architects. There, he did not hesitate to criticize the banal, Soviet-influenced architecture that he saw, and he gave a talk in which he urged the Chinese to look back at their own traditions rather than “slavishly following Eastern European patterns.”

The criticism did not deter the Chinese government from inviting Mr. Pei, by then the most famous Chinese-born architect in the world, back again, this time to design a group of high-rise hotels in the center of Beijing. He declined, saying that he feared such buildings would deface the city.

In 1992, Mr. Pei began working with his sons Chien Chung Pei, known as Didi, and Li Chung Pei, known as Sandi, at Pei Partnership Architects. Among their most visible projects was the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha.CreditHassan Ammar/Associated Press





Image
In 1992, Mr. Pei began working with his sons Chien Chung Pei, known as Didi, and Li Chung Pei, known as Sandi, at Pei Partnership Architects. Among their most visible projects was the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha.CreditHassan Ammar/Associated Press


The government, not willing to let him get away so easily, then offered him a rural site outside the city and asked him to design a resort hotel there. This time he said yes, and produced the design for Fragrant Hill, a sprawling building in which he tried to combine the geometric modernism of his other buildings with elements from traditional Chinese architecture.


It was the first of a few attempts Mr. Pei made to acknowledge the growing interest of many architects in reusing historical form; in a similar vein, he would later design a high-rise hotel in Midtown Manhattan, the Regent (now the Four Seasons), which tried to evoke the romantic, stepped-back forms of prewar New York skyscrapers.

The opening of Fragrant Hill was a major international event. Jacqueline Onassis, whose friendship with Mr. Pei remained strong throughout the years of delay over the Kennedy Library, attended, as did Carter Brown, the director of the National Gallery. But Mr. Pei later admitted that he considered the building, which was poorly constructed and not well maintained, a disappointment.

In 1982, Mr. Pei would have a very different kind of opportunity in China when the governors of the Bank of China in Hong Kong, the bank his father had once run, traveled to New York to meet with Tsuyee Pei, who had long since left China and was living in Manhattan. Their mission was to ask the senior Pei, in a demonstration of traditional Chinese etiquette, if he would agree to allow them to invite his son to design a new skyscraper headquarters for the bank in Hong Kong. (Tsuyee Pei was bitterly opposed to the Communist Chinese government, but he did not stand in the way of his son’s taking the job.)

Mr. Pei and his wife, Eileen, with Prime Minister Jean Claude Juncker at an awards ceremony in Luxembourg in 2006. The couple married in 1942 and had four children.CreditHarald Tittel/picture-alliance and dpa, via Associated Press





Image
Mr. Pei and his wife, Eileen, with Prime Minister Jean Claude Juncker at an awards ceremony in Luxembourg in 2006. The couple married in 1942 and had four children.CreditHarald Tittel/picture-alliance and dpa, via Associated Press


It would turn out to be one of Mr. Pei’s most notable towers, a narrow 70-story composition of triangular and diamond shapes, built of glass and steel.
A Pyramid as a Portal

Mr. Pei would make his biggest international mark, however, in France, with a smaller but far more contentious project. In the early 1980s President François Mitterand, an admirer of the East Building at the National Gallery, invited Mr. Pei to update and expand the Louvre Museum, which was sorely in need of renovation to accommodate a huge increase in visitors.

Mr. Pei proposed building a glass pyramid in the center of the ancient Cour Napoleon to serve as a new main entrance to the museum. He quickly found himself in the center of an international controversy, accused of defacing one of the world’s great landmarks.


He argued that his glass pyramid was merely an updated version of a traditional form, and that his redesigned courtyard had been influenced by the geometric work of the French landscape architect Le Notre. It was rigorously rational, in other words, and in that sense classically French.

Mr. Pei in his Sutton Place home in Manhattan in 2008. As a boy in Shanghai, he was fascinated by the construction of a 25-story hotel. “I couldn’t resist looking into the hole,” he recalled. “That’s when I decided I wanted to build.”CreditTony Cenicola/The New York Times





Image
Mr. Pei in his Sutton Place home in Manhattan in 2008. As a boy in Shanghai, he was fascinated by the construction of a 25-story hotel. “I couldn’t resist looking into the hole,” he recalled. “That’s when I decided I wanted to build.”CreditTony Cenicola/The New York Times


What carried the day, however, was not Mr. Pei’s argument, true as it may have been, but President Mitterand’s determination. The pyramid opened in the spring of 1989, and the elegance of the finished building, not to mention its geometric precision, won over most, if not all, of its opponents.

Within a few years the pyramid had become an accepted, and generally admired, symbol of a re-energized Paris. And like the Kennedy Library, the John Hancock Tower and another controversial Pei project from the 1980s, the Jacob Javits Convention Center in New York, it stood as a measure not just of I. M. Pei’s design talent but also of his patience and perseverance.

In retirement, Mr. Pei remained eager for news of both architecture and art and, until his last year, continued to make the occasional trip downtown to lunch with friends and consume his share of red Bordeaux.

His 100th birthday, in 2017, was marked with an elaborate black-tie dinner, given by his children, at the Rainbow Room atop Rockefeller Center, where he was toasted by many of the world’s leading architects, some of whom had begun their careers working for him, and a circle of friends that included prominent members of the Chinese community in the United States, who considered him among their most eminent figures.

As he blew out the candles on an enormous cake in the angular shape of the monumental Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, his last major building project, Mr. Pei beamed.
Correction: May 16, 2019

An earlier version of this obituary misidentified the son of Mr. Pei who confirmed his death. He is Li Chung Pei, not Chien Chung Pei.

A version of this article appears in print on May 17, 2019, on Page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: A Master Whose Buildings Dazzled the World. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe

2019年5月21日 星期二

Thanks to a $10 Million Gift, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles Will No Longer Charge General Admissio










Art in Los Angeles is about to get more accessible.

Thanks to a $10 million gift, MOCA | The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles will no longer charge general admission:


NEWS.ARTNET.COM

Thanks to a $10 Million Gift, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles Will No Longer Charge General Admission | artnet News











出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

ナビゲーションに移動検索に移動

ロサンゼルス現代美術館

本館(MOCA Grand Avenue)
施設情報
正式名称 Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
愛称 MOCA
収蔵作品数 5,000 以上
開館 1979年[1]
所在地 250 South Grand Avenue Los Angeles, California

Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
位置 北緯34度03分12秒 西経118度15分03秒座標: 北緯34度03分12秒 西経118度15分03秒
外部リンク 公式ウェブサイト
プロジェクト:GLAM

表示


ロサンゼルス現代美術館(ロサンゼルスげんだいびじゅつかん、Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles、通称MOCA)は、アメリカ合衆国カリフォルニア州ロサンゼルス市にある、近現代美術専門の美術館である。

ダウンタウンのグランド通り(Grand Avnenue)にある本館のほか、リトル・トーキョーで仮設の形をとっている「ゲフィン・コンテンポラリー・アット・MOCA」(旧「テンポラリー・コンテンポラリー」)。ウェスト・ハリウッドにある「パシフィック・デザイン・センター」の合計3箇所の施設がある。


目次
1沿革
2コレクション
3参照
4外部リンク
沿革[編集]

1979年に当時の市長トム・ブラッドレーや慈善家のマーシア・シモン・ワイズマン、市会議員ジョエル・ワックスの発案により現代美術館創設の計画が持ち上がり、同年、美術館設立準備委員会が設置された。1983年には建築家フランク・ゲーリー設計の「テンポラリー・コンテンポラリー」(現「ゲフィン・コンテンポラリー」)がオープン。

1988年建築家磯崎新による新館でMOCAが本格的にオープン。



The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA(ゲフィン現代美術館)
MOCA at The Pacific Design Center(MOCA・アット・パシフィック・デザイン・センター)

2019年5月20日 星期一

貝聿銘先生:建築要基地、現場去仔細觀察、研究,以 The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum 和 Louvre Pyramid 為例

貝聿銘先生:建築要基地、現場去仔細觀察、研究,以 The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum 和 Louvre Pyramid 為例

貝聿銘先生在接The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum 和 Louvre Pyramid 兩案子時,都跟業主說,我不知道此案該怎樣設計或者我是否勝任,請給我一段時間研究、思考,之後,我再答覆你。


前者,請參考殷允芃女士的訪問:



未提供相片說明。








McCullough, David (1972). The Great Bridge.

Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge Postdlf.jpg
Seen from Manhattan in 2005
Coordinates40.706°N 73.997°WCoordinates40.706°N 73.997°W
Carries6 lanes of roadway (cars only)
Elevated trains (until 1944)
Streetcars (until 1950)
Pedestrians and bicycles
CrossesEast River
LocaleNew York City (Civic CenterManhattan – Dumbo/Brooklyn HeightsBrooklyn)
Maintained byNew York City Department of Transportation
ID number22400119[1]
Characteristics
DesignSuspension/Cable-stay Hybrid
Total length5,989 ft (1,825.4 m)[2]
Width85 ft (25.9 m)
Height276.5 ft (84.3 m) above mean high water[3]
Longest span1,595.5 ft (486.3 m)
Clearance below135 ft (41.1 m)
History
DesignerJohn Augustus Roebling
OpenedMay 24, 1883; 135 years ago[4]
Statistics
Daily traffic105,679 (2016)[5]
TollFree both ways
Brooklyn Bridge
Pont de Brooklyn de nuit - Octobre 2008 edit.jpg
Built1869-1883
Architectural styleneo-Gothic


跳至導覽跳至搜尋
布魯克林大橋
Brooklyn Bridge
NYCBrooklynBridge.jpg
座標40°42′19″N 73°59′46″W座標40°42′19″N 73°59′46″W
承載機動車高架鐵道(直到1944年)、街車(直到1950年)、行人道、與自行車道
跨越東河
地點美國紐約州紐約市
曼哈頓布魯克林之間
維護紐約市交通局
特性
類型懸索橋
全長1,825公尺(5,988英尺)
寬度26公尺(85英尺)
最大跨度486.3公尺(1,595英尺)
橋下淨空41公尺(135英尺)
歷史
開通日1883年5月24日
統計
日交通量年均每日145,000輛
布魯克林大橋英語Brooklyn Bridge),原稱為紐約與布魯克林大橋(英語:New York and Brooklyn Bridge)或東河大橋英語:East River Bridge),是美國最老的懸索橋之一,建於1883年,其1,825公尺(5,988英尺)[1]長的橋面橫跨紐約東河連接美國紐約州紐約市曼哈頓布魯克林。完工時是當時世界上主跨最長的懸索橋,以及美國第一座使用鋼絲索而非鐵鏈的懸索橋(最早的鋼絲索懸索橋是法國於1823年由Marc Seguin建造的Passerelle de Saint-Antoine行人步行天橋)。布魯克林大橋這個名字來源於1867年1月25日寫給《布魯克林鷹報》的一封信中,[2] 並於1915年正式由市政府採納。布魯克林大橋啟用後,它已成為紐約市天際線不可或缺的一部分,在1964年成為了美國國家歷史地標[3][4][5]。1972年入選國際土木工程歷史古蹟[6]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brooklyn_Bridge







From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search
The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge
The Great Bridge book cover.jpg
AuthorDavid McCullough
CountryU.S.
LanguageEnglish
SubjectBiography/U.S. History
GenreNon-fiction
PublisherSimon & Schuster
Publication date
1972
Pages636 pages
ISBN978-0671457112
OCLC482678
Preceded byThe Johnstown Flood 
Followed byThe Path Between the Seas 
The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge is a 1972 book about the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge written by popular historian David McCullough. It provides a history of the engineering that went into the building of the bridge as well as the toils John A. Roebling, the designer of the bridge, went through with his son Washington Roebling to bring the bridge to its completion.[1] The book went on to win two awards in 1973; the Certificate of Merit Municipal Art Society, NY, and the New York Diamond Jubilee Award.[2]
The documentary film, Brooklyn Bridge, released in 1981 by Ken BurnsRoger Sherman, Buddy Squires, and Amy Stechler drew inspiration from McCullough's work. He was also chosen to be the narrator for the film.[3][4]

References[edit]


^ McCullough, David (1983). "THE GREAT BRIDGE AND THE AMERICAN IMAGINATION". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
^ "The Great Bridge". Simon & Schuster. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
^ "Burns, Ken; U.S. Documentary Film Maker". Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
^ Burns, Ken. "Why I Decided to Make Brooklyn Bridge". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved February 20, 2010.

External links[edit]


Official Site at Simon & Schuster
The Great Bridge from WorldCat
Presentation by McCullough on The Great Bridge, September 17, 2002, C-SPAN