2011年2月27日 星期日

Käthe Kollwitz 凱綏·柯勒惠支

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Käthe Kollwitz

Käthe Kollwitz self-portrait
Birth name Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz
Born July 8, 1867(1867-07-08)
Königsberg, Prussia, now Kaliningrad, Russia
Died April 22, 1945(1945-04-22) (aged 77)
Moritzburg
Nationality German
Movement Expressionism
Influenced by Max Klinger, Frans Masereel
Influenced Nicolae Tonitza

Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 – April 22, 1945) was a German painter, printmaker, and sculptor whose work offered an eloquent and often searing account of the human condition in the first half of the 20th century. Her empathy for the less fortunate, expressed most famously through the graphic means of drawing, etching, lithography, and woodcut, embraced the victims of poverty, hunger, and war.[1][2] Initially her work was grounded in Naturalism, and later took on Expressionistic qualities.[3]

Contents

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[edit] Life and work

[edit] Youth

Kollwitz was born in Königsberg, Province of Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia), the fifth child in her family. Her father, Karl Schmidt, was a radical Social democrat who became a mason and house builder. Her mother, Katherina Schmidt, was the daughter of Julius Rupp, a Lutheran pastor who was expelled from the official State Church and founded an independent congregation. Her education was greatly influenced by her grandfather's lessons in religion and socialism.

Recognizing her talent, Kollwitz' father arranged for her to begin lessons in drawing and copying plaster casts when she was twelve.[4] At sixteen she began making drawings of working people, the sailors and peasants she saw in her father's offices. Wishing to continue her studies at a time when no colleges or academies were open to young women, Kollwitz enrolled in an art school for women in Berlin. There she studied with Karl Stauffer-Bern, a friend of the artist Max Klinger. The etchings of Klinger, their technique and social concerns, were an inspiration to Kollwitz.[5]

At the age of seventeen, Kollwitz became engaged to Karl Kollwitz, a medical student.[6] In 1888, she went to Munich to study at the Women's Art School, where she realized her strength was not as a painter, but a draftsman. In 1890, she returned to Königsberg, rented her first studio, and continued to draw laborers.[7]

In 1891, Kollwitz married Karl, by this time a doctor, who tended to the poor in Berlin, where the couple moved into the large apartment that would be Kollwitz' home until it was destroyed in World War II.[7] The proximity of her husband's practice proved invaluable:

"The motifs I was able to select from this milieu (the workers' lives) offered me, in a simple and forthright way, what I discovered to be beautiful.... People from the bourgeois sphere were altogether without appeal or interest. All middle-class life seemed pedantic to me. On the other hand, I felt the proletariat had guts. It was not until much later...when I got to know the women who would come to my husband for help, and incidentally also to me, that I was powerfully moved by the fate of the proletariat and everything connected with its way of life.... But what I would like to emphasize once more is that compassion and commiseration were at first of very little importance in attracting me to the representation of proletarian life; what mattered was simply that I found it beautiful."[8]

[edit] Personal health

It is believed Kollwitz suffered from anxiety during her childhood due to the death of her siblings, including the early death of her younger brother, Benjamin.[9] More recent research suggests that Kollwitz may have suffered from a childhood neurological disorder called Alice in Wonderland syndrome, commonly associated with migraines and sensory hallucinations.[10] However, speculation that this may have directly influenced her work later in life, and in particular inspired the representation of subjects with large heads and hands, rather ignores well-attested formative influences (Max Klinger, Auguste Rodin, etc.) as well as the prevalence of just such distortion for deliberate expressive effect among artistic friends and contemporaries (e.g. George Grosz, Otto Dix).[citation needed]

[edit] The Weavers

Between the births of her son, Hans in 1892 and Peter in 1896, Kollwitz saw a performance of Gerhart Hauptmann's The Weavers, which dramatized the oppression of the Silesian weavers in Langembielau and their failed revolt in 1842.[7] Inspired, the artist ceased work on a series of etchings she had intended to illustrate Emile Zola's Germinal, and produced a cycle of six works on the weavers theme, three lithographs (Poverty, Death, and Conspiracy) and three etchings with aquatint and sandpaper (March of the Weavers, Riot, and The End). Not a literal illustration of the drama, the works were a free and naturalistic expression of the workers' misery, hope, courage, and, eventually, doom. The cycle was exhibited publicly in 1898 to wide acclaim. But when Adolf Menzel nominated her work for the gold medal of the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung in Berlin, Kaiser Wilhelm II withheld his approval. Nevertheless, The Weavers became Kollwitz' most widely acclaimed work.[11]

[edit] Peasant War

Kollwitz' second major cycle of works was the Peasant War, which, subject to many preliminary drawings and discarded ideas in lithography, occupied her from 1902 to 1908. The German Peasants' War was a violent revolution which took place in Southern Germany in the early years of the Reformation, beginning in 1525; peasants who had been treated as slaves took arms against feudal lords and the church. As was The Weavers, this subject, too, might have been suggested by a Hauptmann drama, Florian Geyer. However, the initial source of Kollwitz' interest dated to her youth, when she and her brother Konrad playfully imagined themselves as barricade fighters in a revolution.[12] The artist identified with the character of Black Anna, a woman cited as a protagonist in the uprising.[12] When completed, the Peasant War consisted of pieces in etching, aquatint, and soft ground: Plowing, Raped, Sharpening the Scythe, Arming in the Vault, Outbreak, After the Battle (which, eerily premonitory, features a mother searching through corpses in the night, looking for her son), and The Prisoners. In all, the works were technically more impressive than those of The Weavers, owing to their greater size and dramatic command of light and shadow. They are Kollwitz' highest achievements as an etcher.[12]

While working on Peasant War, Kollwitz twice visited Paris, and enrolled in classes at the Académie Julian in order to learn how to sculpt.[13] The etching Outbreak was awarded the Villa Romana prize, which provided for a year's stay, in 1907, in a studio in Florence. Although Kollwitz did no work, she later recalled the impact of early Renaissance art.[14]

The Grieving Parents, a memorial to Kollwitz' son Peter, now in Vladslo German war cemetery.

[edit] Modernism and World War I

After her return, Kollwitz continued to exhibit her work, but was impressed by the work of younger compatriots—the Expressionists and Bauhaus—and resolved to simplify her means of expression.[15] Subsequent works such as Runover, 1910, and Self-Portrait, 1912, show this new direction. She also continued to work on sculpture.

Kollwitz lost her youngest son Peter on the battlefield in World War I in October 1914, prompting a prolonged depression. By the end of the year she had made drawings for a monument to Peter and his fallen comrades; she destroyed the monument in 1919 and began again in 1925.[16] The memorial, titled The Grieving Parents, was finally completed and placed in the Belgian cemetery of Roggevelde in 1932.[17] Later, when Peter's grave was moved to the nearby Vladslo German war cemetery, the statues were also moved.

In 1917, on her fiftieth birthday, the galleries of Paul Cassirer provided a retrospective exhibition of one hundred and fifty drawings by Kollwitz.[18]

Kollwitz was a committed socialist and pacifist, who was eventually attracted to communism; her political and social sympathies found expression in the "memorial sheet for Karl Liebknecht" and in her involvement with the Arbeitsrat für Kunst, a part of the Social Democratic Party government in the first few weeks after the war. As the war wound down and a nationalistic appeal was made for old men and children to join the fighting, Kollwitz implored in a published statement:

"There has been enough of dying! Let not another man fall!"[19]

While working on the sheet for Karl Liebknecht, she found etching insufficient for expressing monumental ideas. After viewing woodcuts by Ernst Barlach at the Secession exhibitions, she completed the Liebknecht sheet in the new medium and made about thirty woodcuts by 1926.[20]

In 1920 Kollwitz was elected a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts, the first woman to be so honored. Membership entailed a regular income, a large studio, and a full professorship.[20]

In the years that followed, her reaction to the war found a continuous outlet. In 1922–23 she produced the cycle War in woodcut form, including the works The Sacrifice, The Volunteers, The Parents, The Widow I, The Widow II, The Mothers, and The People. In 1924 she finished her three most famous posters: Germany's Children Starving, Bread, and Never Again War.[21]

[edit] Later life and World War II

The interior of the Neue Wache, showing the Käthe Kollwitz sculpture Mother with her Dead Son a World War II war memorial.
German stamp issued in 1991 in the Women in German history series

In 1933, after the establishment of the National-Socialist regime, the Nazi Party authorities forced her to resign her place on the faculty of the Akademie der Künste following her support of the Dringender Appell.[22] Her work was removed from museums. Although she was banned from exhibiting, one of her "mother and child" pieces was used by the Nazis for propaganda.[23]

Working now in a smaller studio, in the mid-1930s she completed her last major cycle of lithographs, Death, which consisted of eight stones: Woman Welcoming Death, Death with Girl in Lap, Death Reaches for a Group of Children, Death Struggles with a Woman, Death on the Highway, Death as a Friend, Death in the Water, and The Call of Death.

In July 1936, she and her husband were visited by the Gestapo, who threatened her with arrest and deportation to a Nazi concentration camp; they resolved to commit suicide if such a prospect became inevitable.[24] However, Kollwitz was by now a figure of international note, and no further action was taken. On her seventieth birthday, she "received over one hundred and fifty telegrams from leading personalities of the art world", as well as offers to house her in the United States, which she declined for fear of provoking reprisals against her family.[25]

She survived her husband (who died from an illness in 1940) and her grandson Peter, who died in action in World War II two years later.

She evacuated Berlin in 1943. Later that year, her house was bombed and many drawings, prints, and documents were lost. She moved first to Nordhausen, then to Moritzburg, a town near Dresden, where she lived her final months as a guest of Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony.[25] Kollwitz died just before the end of the war.

Kollwitz made a total of 275 prints, in etching, woodcut and lithography. Virtually the only portraits she made during her life were images of herself, of which there are at least fifty. These self-portraits constitute a life-long honest self-appraisal; "they are psychological milestones".[26]

[edit] Legacy

Woman with Dead Child, 1903 etching

Her silent lines penetrate the marrow like a cry of pain; such a cry was never heard among the Greeks and Romans.[27]

Käthe Kollwitz is a subject within William T. Vollmann's Europe Central, a 2005 National Book Award winner for fiction. In the book, Vollmann describes the lives of those touched by the fighting and events surrounding World War II in Germany and the Soviet Union. Her chapter is entitled "Woman with Dead Child", after her sculpture of the same name.

An enlarged version of a similar Kollwitz sculpture, Mother with her Dead Son, was placed in 1993 at the center of Neue Wache in Berlin, which serves as a monument to "the Victims of War and Tyranny".

Artist Birgit Stauch depicted Kollwitz in a bronze bust displayed in the Käthe-Kollwitz-Schule in Esslingen, one of more than 40 German schools named after her.[28][29][30][31][32][33]

Two museums, one in Berlin[34]and Cologne,[35] are dedicated solely to her work.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Bittner, Herbert, Kaethe Kollwitz; Drawings, page 1. Thomas Yoseloff, 1959.
  2. ^ Fritsch, Martin (ed.), Homage to Käthe Kollwitz. Leipzig: E. A. Seeman, 2005.
  3. ^ "The aim of realism to capture the particular and accidental with minute exactness was abandoned for a more abstract and universal conception and a more summary execution". Zigrosser, Carl: Prints and Drawings of Käthe Kollwitz, page XIII. Dover, 1969.
  4. ^ Bittner, page 2.
  5. ^ Kurth, Willy: Kaethe Kollwitz, Geleitwort zum Katalog der Ausstellung in der Deutschen Akademie der Kuenste, 1951.
  6. ^ Bittner, page 3.
  7. ^ a b c Bittner, page 4.
  8. ^ Fecht, Tom: Käthe Kollwitz: Works in Color, page 6. Random House, Inc., 1988.
  9. ^ Bittner, pages 1-2.
  10. ^ Drysdale, Graeme R. (May 2009). "Kaethe Kollwitz (1867–1945): the artist who may have suffered from Alice in Wonderland Syndrome". Journal of Medical Biography 17 (2): 106–10. doi:10.1258/jmb.2008.008042. PMID 19401515. http://jmb.rsmjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/rsmjmb;17/2/106?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=50&resourcetype=HWCIT.
  11. ^ Bittner, pages 4-5.
  12. ^ a b c Bittner, page 6.
  13. ^ Bittner, pages 6-7. During this time she also visited Rodin twice.
  14. ^ "But there, for the first time, I began to understand Florentine art." Kollwitz, Kaethe: The Diaries and Letters of Kaethe Kollwitz, page 45. Henry Regnery Company, 1955.
  15. ^ "Nevertheless I am no longer satisfied. There are too many good things that seem fresher than mine... I should like to do the new etchings so that all the essentials are strongly stressed and the inessentials almost omitted." Kollwitz, page 52.
  16. ^ Bittner, page 9.
  17. ^ "I stood before the woman, looked at her—my own face—and wept and stroked her cheeks." Kollwitz, page 122.
  18. ^ "The elements of her nature and her art can often be felt more immediately in the drawings than in the prints, even much that in the latter has scarcely found a fulfillment." Kurth, Willy: Kunstchronik, N.F., Vol. XXXVII, 1917.
  19. ^ Kollwitz, page 89.
  20. ^ a b Bittner, page 10.
  21. ^ Bittner, page 11.
  22. ^ Dorothea Körner, "Man schweigt in sich hinein – Käthe Kollwitz und die Preußische Akademie der Künste 1933-1945" Berlinische Monatsschrift (2000) Issue 9, pp. 157–166. Retrieved July 8, 2010 (German)
  23. ^ Jane Kelly, "The Point is to Change it" jstor.org/stable/1360622 (fee required) Retrieved July 9, 2010
  24. ^ Bittner, page 13.
  25. ^ a b Bittner, page 15.
  26. ^ Zigrosser, page XXII, 1969.
  27. ^ Gerhart Hauptmann, quoted by Zigrosser, page XIII, 1969.
  28. ^ Short explanation of the school's name, with links to three articles about Kollwitz Käthe-Kollwitz-Schule Esslingen, official website. Retrieved July 9, 2010 (German)
  29. ^ List of hits for Käthe-Kollwitz-Gymnasium Google website. Retrieved July 10, 2010
  30. ^ List of hits for Käthe-Kollwitz-Schule Google website. There is some overlap because some schools use both "Schule" and another term to refer to themselves. Retrieved July 10, 2010
  31. ^ List of hits for Käthe-Kollwitz-Realschule Google website. Retrieved July 10, 2010
  32. ^ List of hits for Käthe-Kollwitz-Hauptschule Google website. Retrieved July 10, 2010
  33. ^ List of hits for Käthe-Kollwitz-Gesamtschule Google website. Retrieved July 10, 2010
  34. ^ Käthe Kollwitz Museum Berlin Official website. Retrieved January 30, 2011
  35. ^ Käthe Kollwitz Museum Köln Official website. Retrieved January 30, 2011 (German)

[edit] External links



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座落在柏林柯勒惠支廣場上她的雕像

凱綏·柯勒惠支Käthe Kollwitz 1867年 7月8日 - 1945年 4月22日)是德國表現主義版畫家和雕塑家,20世紀德國最重要的畫家之一。

柯勒惠支出生於俄羅斯克尼哥斯堡(現在的加里寧格勒)的一個德裔家庭,原名凱綏·施密特。14歲時即開始學習繪畫1884年進入柏林女子藝術學院學習,後來又到慕尼黑學習。1889年和在貧民區服務的醫生卡爾·柯勒惠支結婚,1898年開始在柏林女子藝術學院任教。其間幾次遊歷巴黎義大利1909年回 國後為一個漫畫雜誌Simplicissimus.工作。這時她已經成為一個社會主義者。她的早期作品《織工反抗》、《起義》和《死神與婦女》、《李卜克 內西》 、《戰爭》(組畫)等,不僅以尖銳的形式把在資本主義制度下工人階級的悲慘命運和勇於鬥爭的精神傳達出來,而且喚醒人們反對侵略戰爭,要根除戰爭根源,實 現世界大同的理想。

1914年在第一次世界大戰中,他的兒子被征入伍在西線陣亡。1920年她和愛因斯坦等人組織成立了國際援助工人組織。1932年她和其他社會主義者組成反對納粹的陣線,希特勒上台後,她被取消普魯士學院院士的榮譽,雖然她是第一位被選為普魯士學院的女性院士,並禁止她的作品參加展覽。1940年她丈夫去世,1945年他的孫子又在東線陣亡。1943年她的住宅被炸毀,她離開柏林德勒斯登附近的一個小鎮居住,並在那裡逝世。

她因為和丈夫居住在貧民區,了解普通人民的貧困境遇,她的作品從一開始就反映普通人民的貧苦生活,因此在第一次獲得金獎時,就被當時的威廉二世國王取消。後來她又創作了《悼念卡爾·李卜克內西》和為工人組織創作的一系列招貼。兒子去世後又創作了許多悲傷母親的形象,宣傳反戰思想。她的作品充滿悲傷和凄慘的情緒,如實反映了19世紀20世紀初德國底層人民的可悲狀況。柯勒惠支還對銅版畫和石版畫的技術有許多改進和創造。

柯勒惠支的作品首次被魯迅*先生介紹到中國,對中國現代版畫的發展起了很大的影響。魯迅評價她的作品是:「她以深廣的慈母之愛,為一切被侮辱和損害者悲哀,抗議,憤怒,鬥爭;所取的題材大抵是困苦,飢餓,流離,疾病,死亡,然而也有呼聲,掙扎,聯合和奮起。」

*凱綏·柯勒惠支版畫選集 序目1936/2/17 (原名Kaethe Schmidt 夫姓Kollwitz )

1945年4月22日卒於德勒斯登

[編輯] 生平大事記

  • 1867年(與諾爾德同年)生於東普魯士的柯尼斯堡。
  • 1884年在柏林美術學院學習,後又在慕尼黑繼續深造。
  • 1885-1886年在柏林從師施陶費爾-貝爾恩,學習馬克斯·克林格爾的蝕刻組畫。
  • 1890年創作了第一批銅版畫。1891年與「施診醫生」卡爾·珂勒惠支結婚。
  • 後經畫家門采爾推薦,當選普魯士美術學院成員,主持版畫部工作。
  • 1919年從師巴拉赫,改學木版畫。
  • 最初的作品是《紀念李卜克內西》,此後在1922-23年創作了組畫《戰爭》。
  • 1927年應邀訪問蘇聯,蘇聯的社會主義建設大大鼓舞了她 ,回國後創作的石版畫《遊行示威》、《團結就是力量》、《母與子》等,表明了她對無產階級解放事業的新認識,藝術水平也達到一個新的境地。
  • 1931年她的作品被魯迅介紹到中國來,1936年又出版她的作品集,對中國新木刻運動的發展起了推動作用。
  • 作為一個勇敢的反納粹女戰士,1933年她憤然離開了普魯士美術學院。
  • 1933年希特勒上台,她雖然受到迫害,仍堅持作畫,代表作《死亡》和《哀悼基督》以粗獷的線條,強烈的黑白對比,描繪了生與死的激烈搏鬥,宣洩了她憤懣的情緒。
  • 1942年「全面開戰「時,她發表了最後一幅木版畫作品《不要把收穫的糧食磨成粉》。
  • 1945年戰爭即將結束時死於德勒斯登附近莫里茨山
  • 1979年北京舉辦《珂勒惠支作品展》,展出了她一生中最主要的作品113件。

[編輯] 柯勒惠支的主要作品

  • 窮困(1893年)
  • 末日(1897年)
  • 下工的工人(1897年)
  • 自畫像(1897年)
  • 起來(1899年)
  • 自畫像(1900年)
  • 哀悼去世孩子的婦女1903年)
  • 覺醒(1903年)
  • 戰場(1907年)
  • 囚徒(1908年)
  • 志願者(1920年)
  • 母親們(1921年)
  • 不要再發生戰爭(1924年)
  • 自畫像(1924年)
  • 死神的召喚(1934年)
  • 自畫像(1938年)

[編輯] 外部連結

Guillaume Apollinaire,1880—1919 數書

阿波利奈爾論藝術Apollinaire Chroniques Sur l'art


内容简介 · · · · · ·

  本书包括《美学沉思录》和《艺术散论》两部分。
  《美学沉思录》(1913)完成了立体主义的理论建树,被人视为立体主义的“圣经”。它十分精辟地论述了立体主义的艺术追求、不同形式的表现和特点,介绍了当时异军突起、卓有成就的几位新画家。
  《艺术散论》的大部分篇幅是对当时的新锐艺术家所作的第一评论,也是对后来应验成为大师级艺术家的最原初、最直接、最鲜活的见证。内容盘根交错,但是大脉络很清晰:始终支持一切艺术创新的努力,始终宣扬新精神,为实现一种全新艺术的大目标而奋斗。

作者简介 · · · · · ·

   纪尧姆·阿波利奈尔(Guillaume Apollinaire,1880—1919),法国20世纪最具特色的诗人和小说家,超现实主义文艺运动的先驱之一。他是具有前卫精神与实验技巧的第一 位现代欧洲诗人,他将绘画技巧引入诗歌写作,他创作的图象诗持续被后人所争论和学习。主要作品有诗集《烧酒集》、《图画诗集》,小说《被谋杀的诗人》、 《橄榄的荣耀》,剧本《卡萨诺瓦》、 《时间颜色》等,另有大量艺术评论。



【本書目錄】
阿波利奈爾,創新派的旗手
美學沉思錄——論立體派畫家
 論繪畫
 新畫家
 附錄
藝術散論
 柏林的佩加蒙博物館
 法德問題
 杜塞爾多夫的展覽會
 紐倫堡日耳曼國家博物館
 贗品
 畢加索,畫家和素描畫家
 電影
 貝思海姆-瓦格拉姆
 秋季美展[--](1907)
 秋季美展[二](1907)
 莫里斯-德·弗拉曼克事件
 亨利·馬蒂斯
 大獎章:一頭野獸
 獨立畫家美術展覽會(1908)
 喬治·布拉克
 秋季美展(1909)
 論博物館
 弗拉迪斯拉夫·格朗佐夫
 塞尚畫展
 夏爾·拉科斯特畫展
 路易絲·布雷斯洛色粉畫和門頭飾板展
 馬爾桑館裝飾藝術展
 博納爾畫展
 夏爾·蓋蘭畫展
 莫里斯·德·弗拉曼克畫展
 當心繪畫!
 獨立藝術家美展:六干幅畫展出
 奧東·弗里茨畫展
 美展總覽
 法蘭西永葆快活
 高更畫展
 邦雅曼·拉比埃水彩畫展
 關于邦雅曼·拉比埃的講座
 馬奈畫展
 理查德·蘭夫特的雕刻作品
 塞尚的人物畫在伏拉爾畫廊
 秋季美展(1910)
 馬塞爾·勒努瓦
 俄羅斯畫家。施泰因海爾案件真相
 亨利-埃德蒙·克羅斯畫展
 拉蒙·皮紹畫展
 安德烈·洛特的繪畫
 格朗佐夫的繪畫
 奧迪龍·雷東
 喬治·德瓦利埃爾
 獨立畫家美展(1911)
 安格爾畫展
 讓·皮伊畫展
 里昂畫家約瑟夫·特雷伍畫展
 阿道爾夫·維萊特諷喻畫展
 《繪畫的近年狀態》
 英國色粉畫
 巴加泰勒的假畫
 前言
 小展覽官戈布蘭掛毯展
 布盧瓦有屋頂的公墓
 《大師的繪畫》
 《蒙娜麗莎》失竊
 亨利-德·格魯
 秋季美展(1911)
 巴黎通訊
 從米開朗琪羅到畢加索
 消防派畫家、瓦洛東和勒杜瓦尼埃·盧梭
 意大利未來主義畫家
 未來主義藝術家
 回答一份關于立體主義的調查問卷
 裝飾藝術和女性繪畫
 裝飾藝術的復興
 瑪利亞·洛朗辛、羅貝爾·德洛奈畫展
 新傾向和個性藝術家
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 克勞德·莫奈
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 青年畫家們,不必氣餒
 未來主義
 現實、純繪畫
 未來主義并非無足輕重
 現代繪畫
 弗朗索瓦·呂德
 今天的雕刻
 “巴黎今天
 “我相信未來
 法國藝術家美展
 美的形象
 未來主義畫家和雕刻家波丘尼
 勃艮第雕刻
 羅馬獎(繪畫)比賽
 關于呂德的講座
 G.德·希里科
 秋季美展[一](1913)
 秋季美展[二](1913)
 獨立藝術家美展(1914)
 亞歷山大·阿爾西品科作品展目錄前言
 亞歷山大·阿爾西品科
 羅杰·德·拉弗雷納伊畫展
 阿特爾畫展:《墨西哥的高山》
 詩人的批評
 柯羅語錄
 威尼斯和藍色海岸
 一篇奇特的前言
 德·皮奈利先生
 修拉的炭精筆
 菲爾南·萊熱的一場講座
 十三幅畫
 藝術與醫學
 會變得罕見的一幅版畫
 羅丹和奧雷爾
 在加利拉博物館
 修拉的一封信
 蘭波的繪畫
 藝術之頁
 安德烈·德蘭
 法國藝術大放異彩
 藝術和戰爭
 《獻藝》
 立體主義和《獻藝》
 關于立體主義和未來主義
 既然有人告訴你們
 馬蒂斯、畢加索畫展目錄前言
 巴勃羅·畢加索的言論
 阿波利奈爾生平和創作年表


----

動物詩集: 貓/ 跳蚤 (阿波利奈爾)

從《魯迅年譜》 (北京:人民文學) 1928/11/30 發表從日文轉譯的諷次短詩 跳蚤

這首可以從 阿波利奈爾傳 (阿波利奈尔传guillaume-apollinaire ) 頁527找到

2011年2月25日 星期五

《天池石壁圖》軸,元,大癡──黃公望繪


天池石壁圖軸
《天池石壁圖》軸,元,黃公望繪,絹本,設色,縱139.4cm,橫57.3cm。
本幅自識:“至正元年十月,大痴道人為性之作天池石壁圖,時年七十有三。” 至正元年為1341年。
畫面上部有元人柳貫長題,鈐元錢良佑,明鄒迪光、李蔚等鑒藏印記9方,又半印1方。
此圖描繪的是蘇州城西吳縣境內天池山的景色。天池山與靈岩山、天平山一脈相連,峰巔矗立巨石,遠望巧若蓮花,人稱“華山”。山一側的半山坳中長年積有一泓碧水,名曰“天池”,故山之這一面亦被稱為“天池山”。
畫面兼用高遠和深遠的構圖方法。近景丘陵溪澗,長松茂樹。山徑迂曲,通向主峰。畫面正中層巒疊嶂,天池居於右上,兩側石壁對峙,池中水閣數椽。主峰兩側煙雲流潤,使畫面虛實相生。
此幅構圖繁復,高坡陡崖錯落分佈,雄秀多姿。畫家狀物之筆雖較簡略,雜樹多用橫點,山石作披麻皴,但線條卻顯得自然流暢,起落有序;筆法朴厚蒼潤,變化多端。設色采用“淺絳法”,多用淡赭,併以墨青、墨綠合染,冷暖互補,極佳地表現出山色的青蔥與陽光的和煦。正如清吳修所雲:“赭色微黃畫裡春,墨青墨綠染精神。”
黃公望擅長的 “淺絳法”在中國古代山水畫的發展中具有重要地位,此圖即其典範作品。另,本幅柳貫長題中稱黃公望為“吳興室內大弟子”,說明黃公望曾就學於趙孟頫,這是畫史研究中的重要資料。
清吳昇《大觀錄》卷十七、繆曰藻《寓意編》著錄。

(撰稿人:婁瑋)



---
美學系列/大癡──黃公望

因為「癡」,受辱、受傷、受苦,血淚濺迸,在大寂寞大孤獨中走向絕望之處,可以一聲長嘯,驚天動地,使俗世的美,紛紛殞落……

天池石壁

黃公望沒有早年書畫作品傳世,一般著錄都認為他大約在五十歲以後才開始從事繪畫。目前他傳世的作品有台北故宮的〈九珠峰翠〉,上面沒有名款。北京故宮的〈天池石壁〉,畫於至正元年(1341),黃公望七十三歲,在他少有的幾件傳世畫作中是創作年代較早的一件。

〈天池石壁〉左上角有黃公望的題跋:「至正元年十月大癡道人為性之作天池石壁圖,時年七十有三。」

至正2年得到〈天池石壁〉的「性之」請柳貫為這張畫作歌,畫面右上角因此留有柳貫頗長的題詩。

柳貫生在1270年,比黃公望只小一歲。他是元代大學問家,被稱為儒林四傑。他的題詩寫在至正2年,這一年他七十三歲,被授以翰林待制的官,但只做了七個月就去世了,畫上的題詩,可以說是他最後的遺作。

柳貫的長詩裡讚揚黃公望心性修為上的境界,詩中多次用到「騎鯉魚」、「神山」、「蛾綠」這些與神仙修道有關的典故,可見黃公望在當時士人知識分子心目中,不止是一位畫家,更是一名修行全真教德高望重的名士。

連峯嶤嶤雲蔟蔟,石壁天池秋一幅。
大癡道人騎鯉魚,夢入神山采蛾綠。
覺來兩鬢風泠泠,顥氣湧出芙蓉青。

柳貫的詩句使人彷彿看到一名悠遊於山水的神仙人物,來去無所牽掛,坦蕩自在,修道已成,騎著鯉魚,夢入神山。

「兩鬢風泠泠」的修道之人,遨遊於乾坤之間,看山看水,似乎都有了玄機。筆下的紙墨,也才有源源不絕的「顥氣湧出」,成就壯闊山水作品。

柳貫讚揚黃公望的繪畫成就直追五代董源和北宋的米芾──

三百年來畫林壑,「董」「米」中間稱合作。
何嘗惜墨點微茫,間亦塗丹記搖落。

董源、米芾的可靠真跡今日也不多見,但是他們都是以江南風景為創作對象,山巒渾厚圓鈍,畫面富含水分渲染,追求水墨的蓊鬱蒼茫。一般畫史說的「米家山」,在米芾兒子米友仁的〈雲山圖〉裡還約略可以看到江南畫派從晚唐到宋的一系傳承。

「米家山」以富含水分的點法渲染山水,正是柳貫詩中說的「何嘗惜墨點微茫」。水墨渲染,使毛筆清晰的線條消失,成為層次豐富的墨暈,出現視覺上的「蒼茫」 之感。元代山水美學,拉遠了人與山水的距離,空間裡介入了時間的流動,產生畫面大量留白。以詩入畫,山水不再是眼前寫實風景,而更像是回憶裡一段一段的生 命停格。

柳貫是元代儒林四傑,是正統學者,又身在官場,為一名浪跡民間賣卜維生的黃公望題跋,行文之間沒有一絲一毫的輕浮。題詩後段有動人的兩句──

大癡小黠俗所訶,道人迂物良已多。

「大癡」是黃公望晚年最常用的號,〈天池石壁〉、〈九峰雪霽〉上的落款是「大癡道人」,〈富春山居〉上的落款則是「大癡學人」。幾件七十三歲至八十二歲的作品題跋,落款都重複用「大癡」二字。

「癡」──

「癡」這一個字,凡是熟悉中國美學的都不會陌生。

早在魏晉時期大畫家顧愷之就被稱為「畫絕」、「才絕」、「癡絕」。

「畫絕」是畫畫得最好,「才絕」是才學最高,都不難理解,「癡絕」卻不容易詮釋。

從世俗的語言來理解,「癡」可以是「笨」,是「癡呆」。現代人覺得自己聰明的時候,也還常罵人「白癡」。

但是,「癡」也可能是「癡情」,是無怨無悔的專一和執著,是不避世俗笑罵我行我素的生命堅持。

「癡」常常是在絕對孤獨裡的自我完成。

因此,輕浮罵人「白癡」可能是「小黠」,一點小聰明的賣弄。外表看起來癡癡呆呆,卻可能是大智慧。

黃公望取名「大癡」,繼承顧愷之以來「癡絕」的傳統,知道「畫絕」、「才絕」都還只是皮毛的小聰明,沒有過「癡絕」一關,生命的領悟畢竟膚淺輕薄,創作上難以成就大事。

黃公望幼年貧苦,被人收養,從陸家過繼黃家,中年被長官連累入獄,受囹圄之苦。出獄後入全真教,做道士,賣卜度日,浪蕩江湖。柳貫詩中說的「世所訶」彷彿 使人聽到多少世俗輕薄凌辱嘲笑謾罵的喧譁,而黃公望,在走向自己生命高峰的路途上,要一次一次聽著那些喧譁的笑罵走過,提醒自己「癡」的意義,以「大癡」 為名,認真學習「癡」,認真以「癡」為自己最後修行的嚮往。

「癡」,以後常常被用來形容藝術或情感上一種非理性、非知識、非邏輯的狀態。

「癡」也常寫作「痴」。從字面上來看,像是知識的生病。

「痴」,也許是徹悟了「知」的不足吧。

人到痴處,面對著「美」發呆;人到痴處,在「衣帶漸寬終不悔」的情深自苦裡淚流滿面。

痴,沒有什麼道理可說,只是生命可以為之生、為之死的執著吧。在他人眼中看來毫無意義的執著,也只有「痴」可以無視於世俗褒貶,無怨無悔。

許多與美有關的論述,說來說去,觸碰不到「痴」的核心。「知識」、「理性」都無法了解「痴」是一種病,上了癮,無可救藥,不能治療,不能痊癒。

美,不是遵奉與模仿。美,毋寧更是一種叛逆,叛逆俗世的規則,叛逆一成不變的規律,叛逆知識的僵化呆滯,叛逆人云亦云的盲目附和,叛逆知識與理性,叛逆自己習以為常的重複與原地踏步。

領悟了知識的不足,知道了理性的貧乏與脆弱,知道一切定義與條理的限制。「痴絕」的生命,長嘯而起,山鳴谷應,在文明的絕境使歷史濺迸出血淚。

我們很難理解阮籍為什麼走到荒山去,在窮絕的山路上放聲大哭。

我們也很難理解,陶淵明的琴為什麼一根弦都沒有。他在這張素琴上錚錚而彈──但識琴中趣,何勞弦上音。

我們很難理解嵇康的〈廣陵散〉,難以理解他「手揮五弦,目送歸鴻」的傲氣與悲涼。

我喜歡在那歷史的河邊,聽屈原與漁父的對話──「滄浪之水清,可以濯我纓;滄浪之水濁,可以濯我足」,漁父的歌聲其實在河邊流傳了很久,只是屈原第一次聽到而已。

唱出這樣歌聲的,常常是河邊漁父,是山中打柴的樵夫。他們唱著唱著,就唱出了時代中知識者的末路。他們沒有歌讚,也沒有嘲諷,沒有戀慕,也沒有悲憫。他們只是徹悟了什麼,也知道各人有各人的路要走,匆匆一兩句交談,留在歷史上,使會心者一笑罷了。

詩人到了「痴絕」,或許會有震驚歷史的詩句。

生命到了「痴絕」,卻只有血淚與蒼涼的笑聲。

司馬遷的《史記》寫了許多生命的「痴絕」。

楚霸王在烏江圍困中的慷慨高歌,和一生不捨的女人與馬告別,他留下了一種歷史的「痴絕」。

「風蕭蕭兮易水寒」,荊軻唱出另一種生命的「痴絕」。

他們或許是不屑於「美學」的吧,他們走向生命的絕望之處,談笑自若,使千百年的後來者知道:痴到絕處,只是簡單去完成自己一心要做的事,別無他想。

「美」的教育可以是一種對「痴」的尊敬嗎?

知道「痴」到極處,沒有什麼道理可說,只是「春蠶到死」。

大癡

「大癡小黠世所訶」,「癡」是要受世俗嘲笑謾罵的。

到了晚明,「癡」可以成「癖」,而創作者大聲說出:「人不可以無癖,無癖則無情!」

一直到《紅樓夢》的「都云作者癡」,東方美學,一貫「癡」的傳統,為真實活潑人性留了一脈香火。

「癡」,所以可以「雖千萬人,吾往矣」。「癡」,所以可以佯狂, 可以離經叛道。

近代傅柯(Michel Foucault)那麼知道「知識」與「理性」偽裝下病癖的潛能,他便大膽走向「瘋」與「癡」的研究。

因為「癡」,受辱、受傷、受苦,血淚濺迸,在大寂寞大孤獨中走向絕望之處,可以一聲長嘯,驚天動地,使俗世的美,紛紛殞落。

歷史上可能長久聽不到一次這樣的嘯聲。

歷史上可能長久見不到一次這樣的「癡」。我喜歡魚翼《海虞畫苑略》裡一段黃公望的故事:「嘗於月夜,棹孤舟,出西廓門。循山而行,山盡,抵湖橋,以長繩繫 酒瓶於船尾。返舟,行至齊女墓下。牽繩取瓶,繩斷,撫掌大笑,聲震山谷。」那個月夜,在船尾繫著酒瓶出遊的黃公望,以為可以在好山水處喝酒助興,沒想到最 終繩斷瓶空,看到自己的「大癡」,也看到自己的「小黠」,才可以撫掌大笑吧。

真想再聽一聽「大癡」聲震山谷的笑聲。

2011年2月19日 星期六

將錯就錯: Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

將錯就錯

倫敦設計展 看環保便利生活發明

一年一度的英國倫敦設計大獎,今年入圍的作品中,從交通工具到日常生活用品七大類,都充分運用了現代科技,便利人類生活,最重要的,許多作品也都符合了當前節能減碳的趨勢。
透過已廣泛運用在觸控式螢幕手機上的,有機發光二極體OLED,數百片小小的反光片,隨著手部動作翩翩起舞,這是獲得今年倫敦設計博物館,最佳互動設計獎提名的作品含羞草。
除了單純審美的設計外,還有相當環保聰明,踩了就能發電的環保地磚,這種地磚每小時可承受2千次踩踏,如果鋪設在熱鬧商圈或車站,每小時就可發電34.2千瓦,目前已在倫敦的學校試驗,2012倫敦奧運開幕,將會正式使用在史特拉福特最大的購物商場。
這種方法你要做的就是走在路上,就能產生能量,幫助路燈,低耗能程式,以及任何街上需要電力的東西發電,都能直接透過這些板子。
今年入圍交通設計獎的,是去年夏天在倫敦正式上路的公共單車出租系統。整個倫敦市共有6千輛自行車,遍佈在市區400的定點,使用者可自行在路邊解鎖取車,用完把車鎖在公用停車場,不僅符合節能減碳愛地球的趨勢,還相當受歡迎。
我們真的很希望這些單車,能夠成為倫敦的象徵,就像紅色巴士跟黑色計程車一樣。
此外,英國設計鬼才海瑟威克的作品陀螺轉椅,則是入圍了傢俱設計獎,而使用LED科技的虛擬油漆噴墨畫,也入圍互動產品類,另一項可以大幅節省80%電力的低耗能燈泡,則是入圍產品類獎,這種燈泡的壽命可長達8年,絕對是未來燈泡的指標性產品。

(2011-02-19 20:00) 公視晚間新聞

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January 17th, 2011

The Design Museum in London have announced the designs nominated for the Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011, including the Angry Birds game (above). See the full shortlist below.

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Top: Angry Birds, Finland, designed by Rovio Mobile
Above: Gareth Pugh Spring/Summer ’11, UK, designed by Gareth Pugh

The shortlist of nearly 90 designs across the fields of architecture, product, furniture, fashion graphic, interactive, and transport design will be on show at the museum from 16 February to 7 August.

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Above: Vigna Chair, Italy, designed by Martino Gamper. Manufactured by Magis

Seven category winners will be chosen by a jury and announced on 28 February.

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Above: A Love Letter for You, USA, designed by Stephen Powers with The City of Philadelphia Mural Arts Program

The overall winner will then be announced at a ceremony at the museum on 15 March.

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Above: Riversimple, UK, designed by Riversimple

See also: Brit Insurance Designs of the Year awards to be chaired by Stephen Bayley (Dezeenwire)

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Above: Amplify Chandelier, USA, designed by Yves Behar and Fuseproject for Swarovski

Here’s the full list of nominated projects:

Architecture

  • 1111 Lincoln Road, Miami Beach, USA, by Robert Wennett and Herzog & de Meuron
  • A Forest for a Moon Dazzler, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, by Benjamin Garcia Saxe
  • Balancing Barn, Suffolk, UK, by MVRDV. Co-architect: Mole Architects. Client: Living Architecture
  • Burj Khalif, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Llp (Som). Client: Emaar
  • Concrete Canvas Shelters, UK, by Concrete Canvas (Peter Brewin, William Crawford and Phillip Greer)
  • Ladakh Commonwealth Peace Pavilion and Classroom, Tibet, by Sergio Palleroni and Basic Initiative
  • Media-Tic Building, Barcelona, by Enric Ruiz-Geli and Cloud 9
  • Nottingham Contemporary, UK, by Caruso St John Architects. Client: Nottingham City Council
  • Open-Air-Library Magdeburg, Germany, by Karo Architekten and Architektur+Netzwerk. Client: Landeshaupstadt Magdeburg
  • Stonebridge Hillside Hub, Greater London, by Edward Cullinan Architects. Client: Hyde Housing Association/Hillside Action Trust
  • Tape Installations, Austria/Croatia, by For Use/Numen
  • UK Pavilion, Shanghai Expo 2010, China, by Thomas Heatherwick Studio
  • University of Oxford: Department of Earth Sciences, UK, by Wilkinson Eyre Architects. Client: University of Oxford
  • Vitrahaus – Weil Am Rhine, Germany, by Herzog & de Meuron. Client: Vitra Verwaltungs Gmbh
  • Void House, Belgium, by Gon Zifroni in collaboration with Pom-Archi Fashion

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Above: Quarz Series, UK, designed by Max Lamb. Manufactured by J & L Lobmeyr, Austria

Fashion

  • Comme des Garcons Trading Museum Tokyo, Japan, designed and conceived by Rei Kawakubo
  • Lanvin Spring/Summer ’11, France, designed by Alber Elbaz
  • Margaret Howell Plus Shirt, UK, designed by Kenneth Grange and Margaret Howell
  • Melonia Shoe, Sweden, designed by Naim Josefi and Souzan Youssouf
  • Organic Jewellery Collection, Brazil, designed by Flavia Amadeu
  • Tess Giberson Spring/Summer ’11, Shift, USA, designed by Tess Giberson, Carol Bove and Alia Raza
  • Uniqlo +J Autumn/Winter’10, designed by Jil Sander for Uniqlo
  • Gareth Pugh Spring/Summer ’11, UK, designed by Gareth Pugh
  • Ohne Titel Spring/Summer ’11, USA designed by Flora Gill and Alexa Adams

Above: Branca, Italy, designed by Industrial Facility (Sam Hecht, Kim Colin, Ippei Matsumoto)

Furniture

  • Branca, Italy, designed by Industrial Facility (Sam Hecht, Kim Colin, Ippei Matsumoto)
  • Collec+Ors Collection, Australia, designed by Khai Liew, Kirsten Coelho, Gwyn Hanssen Pigott, Bruce Nuske, Prue Venables, Julie Blyfield and Jessica Loughlin
  • Drop Table, Italy, designed by Junya Ishigami. Manufactured by Living Divani
  • Dune, Austria, designed by Rainer Mutsch. Manufactured By Eternit
  • Endless, Netherlands designed by Dirk Vander Kooij
  • Origin Part I: Join, Netherlands, designed by BCXSY in collaboration with Mr Tanaka
  • Plytube, UK, designed by Seongyong Lee
  • Sayl Task Chair, USA, designed by Yves Behar and Fuseproject. Manufactured by Herman Miller
  • Solo Bench, Brazil, designed by Domingos Totora. Manufactured by Touch
  • Spun, Italy, designed by Thomas Heatherwick Studio. Manufactured by Magis
  • Thin Black Lines, Japan, designed by Nendo. Exhibited by Phillips De Pury & Company at The Saatchi Gallery, London
  • Vigna Chair, Italy, designed by Martino Gamper. Manufactured by Magis

Above: Homemade is Best, Sweden, designed by Forsman & Bodenfors for Ikea

Graphics

  • A Love Letter for You, USA, designed by Stephen Powers with The City of Philadelphia Mural Arts Program
  • Coalition of the Willing, UK, direction and production by Knife Party. Written by Tim Rayner. Voice-over artist Colin Tierne
  • Design Criminals Edible Catalogue, Austria, designed by Andreas Pohancenik
  • Four Corners Familiars Series, UK, designed by John Morgan Studio and collaborators
  • Homemade is Best, Sweden, designed by Forsman & Bodenfors for Ikea
  • Irma Boom: Biography in Books, Netherlands, designed by Irma Boom. Published by Grafsiche Cultuurstichting
  • I Wonder, Canada, written, illustrated and designed by Marian Bantjes. Published by Thames & Hudson
  • London College of Communication Summer Show ’10 UK, designed by Studio Myserscough
  • The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, UK, designed by A Practice for Everyday Life. Published by Visual Editions
  • Unit Editions, UK, Tony Brook and Adrian Shaughnessy

Above: Dyson Air Multiplier Fan, UK, designed by James Dyson

Interactive

  • Angry Birds, Finland, designed by Rovio Mobile
  • Cellscope, USA, designed by Professor Daniel Fletcher and The Cellscope Team, Aardman Animation and Wieden + Kennedy. Commissioned by Nokia
  • E.Chromi, UK, designed by Alexandra Daisy Ginsburg and James King in collaboration with Cambridge University’s IGEM Team
  • Flipboard, USA, designed by Mike Mccue and Evan Doll
  • Guardian Eyewitness App, UK, designed by the Guardian technology team (Jonathan Moore, Alastair Dent, Andy Brockie, Martin Redington and Roger Tooth)
  • Mimosa, Italy, designed by Jason Bruges Studio for Philips Lumiblade
  • Paint, UK, designed by Greyworld for Nokia
  • Reactable Mobile, Spain, designed by Reactable Systems
  • Rock Band 3, USA, designed by Harmonix Music Systems
  • Speed of Light, UK, designed by United Visual Artists. Commissioned by Virgin Media
  • The Elements iPad App, USA, designed by Touchpress. Written by Theodore Gray
  • The Johnny Cash Project, USA, by Chris Milk, Aaron Koblin, Radical Meda, Rick Rubin and The Cash Estate
  • Wallpaper* Custom Covers, UK, designed and developed by Kin. Art direction by Meirion Pritchard. Content by Anthony Burrill, James Joyce, Hort, Kam Tang and Nigel Robinson
  • Wired Magazine App, USA, designed and developed by Scott Dadich and Jeremy Clark, Conde Nast Digital

Above: Contemplating Monolithic Design, Italy, created by BarberOsgerby and Sony Design. Exhibition design by Universal Design Studio

Product

  • Act Fire Extinguisher, Norway, designed by Sigrun Vik
  • Amplify Chandelier, USA, designed by Yves Behar and Fuseproject for Swarovski
  • Apple iPad, USA, designed by Apple
  • Blueware Collection, UK, designed by Studio Glithero
  • Contemplating Monolithic Design, Italy, created by BarberOsgerby and Sony Design. Exhibition design by Universal Design Studio
  • Universal Gown, UK, designed by Ben De Lisi
  • Diamant Coffin Series, Denmark, designed by Jacob Jensen Design. Manufactured by Tommerup Kister
  • Dyson Air Multiplier Fan, UK, designed by James Dyson
  • Freecom Cls Mobile Drive, Belgium/Germany, designed by Sylvain Willenz. Manufactured by Freecom
  • Flying Future, Germany, designed by Ingo Maurer
  • In-Betweening Clock, UK, designed by Hye-Yeon Park
  • Intimate Rider, USA, designed by Alan Tholkes
  • Leveraged Freedom Chair, USA, designed by Mit Mobility Laboratory
  • One Arm Drive System, UK, designed and developed by Mark Own and Jon Owen. Manufactured by Nomad Wheelchairs Ltd
  • Pavegen, UK, Designed by Pavegen Systems Ltd
  • Playing With Lego® Bricks and Paper, Japan/Denmark, designed by Muji and Lego®
  • Plumen 001, UK, concept and design direction: Hulger. Design: Samuel Wilkinson
  • Prampack, Norway, designed by Kadabra Produktdesign. Invented by Anne Morkemo. Manufactured by Stokke
  • Quarz Series, UK, designed by Max Lamb. Manufactured by J & L Lobmeyr, Austria
  • See Better to Learn Better, USA/Mexico, designed by Yves Behar and Fuseproject, in partnership with Augen Optics
  • Wall Piercing, Italy, designed by Ron Gilad. Manufactured by Flos
  • Yii, Taiwan, conceived by National Taiwan Craft Research Institute (NTCRI) and Taiwan Design Center (TDC). Creative direction by Gijs Bakker

Above: Plumen 001, UK, concept and design direction: Hulger. Design: Samuel Wilkinson

Transport

  • Barclays Cycle Hire, UK, by Serco and Transport for London
  • Dezir, France, designed by Laurens Van Den Acker for Renault
  • En-V, USA, designed by General Motors
  • Fiat 500 Twinair, Italy, designed and developed by Fiat Style and FPT Fiat Powertrain
  • Riversimple, UK, designed by Riversimple
  • Vanmoof No 5, Netherlands, designed by Vanmoof
  • Yikebike, New Zealand, designed by Grant Ryan

Above: Apple iPad, USA, designed by Apple

Here’s some more information from the Design Museum:


Angry Birds, Concrete Shelters and Chandeliers: meet the 2011 Brit Insurance Design Awards shortlist

Brit Insurance Design Awards nominations announced across seven design categories

Showcasing a year in design, the fourth annual Brit Insurance Design Awards features an international shortlist ranging from Yves Behar’s Swarovski Chandeliers to concrete Emergency Shelters designed in Wales. Nominations also include the Apple iPad as well as six different app’s including the popular Angry Birds game.

Design Museum announce shortlist for Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2011

Above: 1111 Lincoln Road, Miami Beach, USA, by Robert Wennett and Herzog & de Meuron

Industry experts have nominated innovative and engaging designs from around the world across seven categories: Architecture, Fashion, Furniture, Graphics, Interactive, Product and Transport. Stephen Bayley will chair the 2011 jury and will be joined by art and design curator Janice Blackburn OBE, graphic designer Mark Farrow, novelist Will Self, Pro Vice- Chancellor of Kingston University Penny Sparke and Simon Waterfall co- founder of digital agency Poke. We are pleased to announce that Bill Moggeridge, Director of the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, New York will also join this year’s jury.

The nominations will be on show at the Brit Insurance Designs of the Year Exhibition at the Design Museum from 16 February – 7 August 2011. From this comprehensive list, the jury will select the seven category winners to be announced on 28 February 2011. The overall Brit Insurance Design of the Year will be announced at the Awards Dinner on 15 March 2011 and this year’s awards trophy will be exclusively designed by Ross Lovegrove.

Alex Newson, curator of the Brit Insurance Designs of the Year exhibition comments, “The sheer breadth of the shortlist reaffirms the importance of good design and how it can help improve daily lives or even refresh the familiar. Whether it is through ingenious temporary home solutions or a new cycle scheme for London, it is a fascinating list of nominees.”

Brit Insurance is an international general insurance and reinsurance group specialising in commercial insurance. The Group writes a diverse portfolio of insurance and reinsurance including property, liability and motor for a wide range of customers: from sole traders to the largest multinational corporations; from manufacturers to professional services firms; from shops to satellites.


2011年2月15日 星期二

一片Flamenco之牆(米千因)

幾年前一位朋友翻譯 70年美國某商場連鎖店的建設設計
主要是以各"立面"取勝
昨天讀udn的 一片Flamenco之牆(米千因) 覺得應該一記

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一片Flamenco之牆


安達魯西亞這面牆令旅者駐足,默默觀賞。
米千因/攝影

安達魯西亞首府Sevilla向以Flamenco舞蹈著稱,商家擺售的旅遊明信片也以此類為主。
米千因/攝影
妳 多次去義大利,發現他們建築物的facciata層次繁複,千年百年俱在;妳於維也納循線走看新藝術建築物,其Fassaden何以裝飾得如此金碧輝煌; 這回,妳來到西班牙的安達魯西亞,瞥見了那面牆,妳心跳加速走向前,險險驚呼:So eine Fassade!(好一片外牆!)

妳由葡萄牙的Algarve來,不經過瓦倫西亞的,怎麼柳丁樹隨處有?路旁、停車場、居家院落、菸鋪書攤前,全都是。忍不住拍它幾張相,才注意到幾乎都沾 了果蠅蛋,難怪神態萎靡,城市畢竟養不出好東西?沿路所見大片橄欖樹成林倒是頗成景致,採摘季工吉普賽人一旁紮營,營前煹火堆,柴熄石冷,滄浪漫如煙,半 淹了林子。

沿途見此荒廢莊園:唐‧吉訶德何在?
米千因/攝影
吉 普賽古稱Roma,後來變成Gypsy,人們誤以為他們來自埃及,如今則叫Zigeuner、Ciganos、Gitanos……無論如何,就是流浪者, 甚至是婊子、扒手、乞丐的同義字,與外族不通婚,血統純正,外來基因一絲動他不得。堅持有其痛苦,千年居無定所,四處流浪是宿命,挪到戲台上,一場揪心哀 號、扯胸頓足的Flamenco(佛朗明哥舞)演給人看,嗆辣豔俗,令人心驚。

Reales Alcazares王宮後院所鋪的Azulejo地磚。
米千因/攝影
妳在這個安達魯西亞的城市逛了一圈,跟身邊的人說:「見的都是痛苦的臉。」

他:Welcome to the city of Flamenco.

妳來Sevilla(喔!這字念塞維亞,不是塞維拉)是為了看南歐建築,不是什麼安達魯西亞首府、Tapas著名又好吃之類,Flamenco舞蹈雖有些許牽動,但沒碰到場子也沒啥事,倒是陶土黏心上,就是要好好地把Azulejo貼飾的牆面一一看入眼裡,收入心底。

據說,Azulejo(按:Azulejo一詞源出北非陶土燒,現廣義為裝飾性的馬賽克。)於葡萄牙更能看得齊全,可 是Algarve沿海各城鎮找遍,畫的不是橄欖就是Gallo那隻公雞(註),嵌入軟木當隔熱墊子,價廉,都沒想買,把無用的紀念品帶回家徒增懊惱。油 瓶、茶壺、碟子、杯子……沒完沒了的橄欖與Gallo,妳要的仍舊是用Azulejo黏貼的整片牆。於是妳捨北非往南去。

咖啡館、走道、外牆、街坊門牌、教堂更是,全由Azulejo砌出來的。妳只能順路看下去,直到Reales Alcazares王宮花園現眼前。他問:「7.5歐元可也?」

妳點頭,他買票,進去之後就各走各的。占地廣大,愛看的也不同。

果然,老的Azulejo這裡也很多。妳穿堂入室,低頭望花草鳥獸、昂首觀歷史事件,幽幽內室,透空花窗滲進朵朵白光,身邊閃光燈嚓個不停。妳知道這樣拍 不會好,索性收起相機走出去。歷史事件了然要放下,古老的東西看過不收藏。於是,妳漫步到果園,置身濃濃的柑桔香:各種類到齊,世代強權搜括若是,倒好!

趁四下無人,扯下一粒尾巴分岔的檸檬塞到背包:一份人能夠消化分解的紀念品。

五十歲前,妳少駐足,之後妳懊悔不已,何以美好景致心不轉!因此,當妳遠遠見到這片牆,幾乎驚呼,急急走來再也不移動。這可比Azulejo外牆更加教妳 心動。Azulejo看過了然,妳心放下。但是,這可是一片溯及Flamenco源頭,且將之總結的外牆,大剌剌呈在眼前。

不教懊惱再生!鑽入對街銀行的樓梯間,坐著默默觀賞。

往昔,妳定思及來處而感嘆不已。眼前,這片牆磨蹭出一股心喜,美好的所在就是故鄉,何苦再與來處糾纏。

吉普賽女人將一枝花梗按入妳手,抓起就要算命,妳堅決辭謝,否則走不開。

命?算得通?若是,世上哪來漂蕩的人!

註:Gallo作為葡萄牙公正、堅信的精神象徵自然有其淵源。版本多樣,其中一個是這樣說的:一隻死去的公雞復活,使得受冤的人得以脫罪。

【2011/02/15 聯合報】

2011年2月14日 星期一

Scarf maker turns to designer Kenzo Takada to revive traditional silk-dyeing technique

Kenzo Takada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]
Kenzo Takada (高田賢三 Takada Kenzō, born 27 February 1939 in Himeji, Japan) is a Japanese fashion designer. He is also the founder of Kenzo, ...

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BY MAKIKO TAKAHASHI SENIOR STAFF WRITER

2011/02/14


photoYokohama "nassen" silk scarves designed by Kenzo Takada (Makiko Takahashi)

YOKOHAMA--Persuading fashion designer Kenzo Takada to help save an exquisite silk-dyeing technique called "Yokohama nassen" took a while, but the products of his collaboration with a scarf design studio here appear to be as beautiful as any that grace the catwalks of Paris.

The 30-year-old president of Yokohama Kobo studio, Hiroshi Koda, was anxious to save the traditional technique from fading into oblivion. He and a group of young people set up their studio last year to ensure that wouldn't happen.

The fruits of their efforts will blossom this month in a series of scarves made in collaboration with Takada.

Once home to myriad silk-scarf makers, Yokohama was in years gone by a major export gate for raw silk.

But with demand for fashion scarves on the wane, production declined and the nassen dyeing technique seemed to be on the verge of extinction.

Marketed as "Yokohama Kobo Collaborated by Kenzo Takada," the new line of scarves feature the delicate designs and bright colors typical of a Kenzo design.

Fluid, brilliant patterns of anemones, sunflowers and other flora are featured against clear backgrounds of yellow, green or other hues.

In each design, the hand-drawn stencils used in the nassen technique allow very fine lines to be printed with precision accuracy, while soft shades of color are applied by hand, one by one.

Other companies generally use only four or five steps during their dyeing procedures.

But Yokohama Kobo uses up to 15 steps to complete the dyeing of each scarf.

Hemstitching is done entirely by hand, using a distinctive process in which the needle is not pulled out from the silk until the entire line has been sewn.

When Takada was presented with the group's samples, he was amazed at the delicacy of the work, describing them as "rare." The designer agreed to help preserve this technique for future generations.

Koda came up with the idea to revive nassen dyeing about two and a half years ago. At the time, his father, who operated a scarf-processing plant, had made up his mind to shut down amid the prolonged economic slowdown and the fact that scarf designers were transferring production to China.

"I wanted to try something new that could revive Yokohama's 'monozukuri' (product-manufacturing) traditions with a staff of young people, rather than just let the plant close down," Koda said.

So he began designing new scarves. He asked Tofuku Sangyo Co., a silk-printing company in Tsuruoka city, Yamagata Prefecture, to do the printing. The company has a skilled work force of women in their 20s to 40s who are adept at printing silk.

But the most crucial aspect of scarf making is the design.

Koda singled out Takada. It took about a year for Koda to persuade the renowned designer to accept the commission.

The Kenzo collaboration line will include large scarves priced at 26,250 yen ($317) each, along with handkerchiefs and other items. The products will be available at some department stores from mid-February.

"We aspire to become like (the fashion-leader) Hermes, making products that will impress professional designers," Koda said.

Kanazawa college fosters Asian crafts

The Kanazawa College of Art (金沢美術工芸大学, Kanazawa Bijutsu Kōgei Daigaku, literally Kanazawa Art and Industrial Design University) is a university in Kanazawa, Japan. It was founded in 1946 by the municipal government following the World War II. The graduate program opened in 1979.

Famous alumni

External links


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Kanazawa college fosters Asian crafts

BY SOKICHI KURODA STAFF WRITER

2011/02/14


photoMaki-e workshop in Bagan, Myanmar (Kanazawa College of Art)

Burmese may eventually look back on a meeting that took place in Bagan in central Myanmar (Burma) last September as a new beginning.

However that future unfolds, though, it was certainly a historic moment of contact between two proud craft traditions.

About 40 craftspeople from the area, which is known for its lacquer making, watched with intense concentration as a Japanese "maki-e" master demonstrated his art.

Maki-e is an ancient Japanese technique that involves applying lacquer to wood or other materials and applying metal powders such as gold or silver on the wet lacquer to produce intricate patterns of sometimes breathtaking beauty.

Few craftspeople in Myanmar know Maki-e decoration techniques. At the meeting in September, the Burmese artisans present were taking detailed notes.

The event was part of an educational exchange program launched by the Kanazawa College of Art in 2009, which organizes both personnel exchanges and technical teaching to help support Asian craft traditions.

Seven professors from the college and specialists in a variety of crafts such as dyeing, weaving, lacquerware, and metalworking, participate in the project.

Project leader Hideaki Kizaki, 52, who has been researching Asian dyeing and weaving techniques for the past 15 years, stressed that it was not just about Japan teaching other nations. The support and knowledge transfer went both ways.

"The roots of traditional crafts that a changing Japan has lost lie in Asia," he said.

In many Asian countries, traditional crafts are suffering at the hands of industrialization. It is often difficult for artisans trying to compete with cheap, factory-made products to make a living.

One of the Kanazawa College professors' goals is to support the economic independence of craftspeople and develop ways for them to commercialize their skills.

The roots of the program lie in a three-year research program begun in 2002, looking into craft traditions in Myanmar. Kizaki and his colleagues investigated the weaving and dyeing areas of Bagan and Amarapura, Myanmar's former capital, and worked to build a network among the local communities.

They offered guidance to locals on creating a distinctive brand for the area's handicrafts, and, in 2004, some work was exhibited at the Saunders' Weaving Institute in Amarapura. A museum to exhibit crafts was also constructed.

But the educational exchange program has taken the bilateral ties between the Kanazawa and Myanmar to a new level.

Su Hlaing, 25, from Myanmar is one of a new intake of overseas students admitted by the Kanazawa College of Art from this year to develop future arts and crafts leaders in Asian countries.

"In Myanmar, there's no awareness that traditional crafts are something of value. I would be very happy if I could learn advanced design techniques in Japan and put them to use in Myanmar," said Su, who is studying design at the college.

While the exchange program is currently focused on Myanmar, it is part of a wider network of connections with craftspeople and arts and crafts associations in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries developed since 2002. Artisans from Cambodia, Taiwan and other countries have been invited to the College's home in Ishikawa Prefecture. There are plans for the exchange program to expand to include other countries such as Laos and Cambodia.

"Traditional crafts may have been left behind by modernization, but they are a valuable, intangible heritage for humanity. Our school, which is located in Kanazawa, a place where traditional crafts are very popular, wants to assist with preserving and ensuring the continuation of these crafts," said Kizaki.