2011年4月27日 星期三

Kano Tanyu's sketches: focusing on birds, animals and figures

美術雑誌『国華』創刊。
こっか〔コククワ Kokka〕【国華】 月刊美術雑誌。明治22年(1889)岡倉天心・高橋健三らが創刊。東洋美術、特に日本美術の作品紹介と研究論文を掲載。


Kanō Tan'yū (狩野 探幽?, 4 March 1602 - 4 November 1674) was one of the foremost Japanese painters of the Kanō school. His original given name was Morinobu; he was the eldest son of Kanō Takanobu and grandson of Kanō Eitoku. Many of the most famous and widely known Kanō works today are by Tan'yū.

Kano Tanyu's sketches: focusing on birds, animals and figures

2011/04/28


photoThis is a part of the Birds and Flowers of the Four Seasons Screen.

Editor's Note: The following articles are translations of reviews carried by the latest issue ( No. 1386) of Kokka, a prestigious art magazine published in Japan. The publication, which specializes in old Japanese and Oriental art, was founded in 1889 by Tenshin Okakura, a well-known Japanese art critic and philosopher (1862-1913), among others. It is held in high esteem by researchers and experts aboard.

Plate 1 (color) Swan

by Kano Tanyu

Hanging scroll, color on paper

H. 56.5cm, W. 130.0cm

Hatakeyama Memorial Museum, Tokyo

By Hiroko Kato

What are we to be made of the sketches by Kano Tanyu (1602-1674)?

Tanyu's sketches and finished paintings have up to now been handled separately. Though Tanyu is heralded as a pioneer in sketching from life, because of the importance of his rank as a painter in service to the shogunate, he was criticized for not being able to display his pre-modern sensibilities in public or use his sketches in his main works. However, a clarifying full study based on the art work as to the reasons for the differences in the works has yet to be conducted.

Regardless of the fact that in the Edo period the terms shasei and shashin were used interchangeably, they have in the past been discussed separately based on genre differences between animal paintings and people portraits. This article discusses them together. Bird and flower paintings, for example, could be called "portraits of birds and animals," and it can be noted that he made shashin life-size sketches of birds and animals, with notations about the depictions (form and color information) on the works to indicate the individual features of each model. Thus, even in cases where corresponding sketches are not extant today, he did create finished works on the basis of related sketches and thus transferred important painting data from the sketch to the finished work.

In terms of the shashin of human figures that were created as sketches for portraits, judging from the records of the production process, it can be said that unlike present-day sketches Tanyu made "sketches from memory" after having fully observed his subject. Even if he did create works based on direct sketches, as indicated by the term shashin, the final goal was shin or idealized truth. This applies not only to human portraits, but also to animal paintings which are "portraits of bird and animals." Therefore we can argue that by necessity this led to a difference between the motifs in sketches and finished paintings. Further, in portraits the sitter's social rank and virtue were symbolized by costume and accompanying items, while with images of birds and animals in paintings importance is conveyed by the depiction of the fur or feathers covering the subject's body. The subject is separated visually by the emphasis on color and pattern rather than form. We can discern the underlying worldview of the artist from this tendency of vision and depiction to discern and depict difference. This is a world view that sees a union of subject and object, that confirms that all living beings are the manifestation of God's design, one that differs greatly from the post-Renaissance naturalism and the objective view established by the realism of the 19th century. If that is the case, then naturally there are divisions between the sketching form nature established in the Renaissance drawing study and the application of methods that collate the motifs in the finished picture.

The shin or truth that was Tanyu's goal was based on traditional forms and depictive methods, and on grasping immediately that which was not readily apparent, bringing in new reproductive depiction with iconographic information that was based on a subtle balance between those traditional factors and life sketching. If we recognize that the gap between sketches and finished bird and flower paintings seen in Tanyu, Ogata Korin and Watanabe Shiko was quite considerable by the time we reach Maruyama Okyo, then we can interpret this not as a reflection of the artist's social standing, but rather the change in the shin sought by the artist in each period. In the future, should we re-evaluate an artist or an art work based on whether or not a sketch motif was directly linked to a finished work and the degree to which it was reflected in that work, or rather should we clarify the change in the nature of the shin sought by the period and the artist?

The author is an art historian (Japanese painting) and research assistant at the Faculty of Fine Arts, Tokyo University of the Arts.

* * *

Plates 2 and 3 (color)

Birds and Flowers of the Four Seasons Screens

by Ito Jakuchu

Pair of six-panel screens, ink on paper

Four paintings on outer edges:

Each H. 134.8cm, W. 48.4cm

Other eight paintings:

Each H. 134.8cm, W. 51.1cm

By Hideyuki Okada

The mid-Edo period Kyoto-based painter Ito Jakuchu (1716-1800) painted this pair of six-panel screens with attached paintings. Working from the right end of the right screen, the paintings depict plum blossoms, peonies and butterflies, rooster and bamboos, bird and pine tree, mynah bird and willow tree, bird and lilies. Working from the right of the left screen, the images are chrysanthemums, tororo-aoi hibiscus, hawk and oak tree, bird and banana plant, Mandarin duck and reeds, and narcissus. Thus, these paintings clearly present from right to left a seasonal progression of spring, summer, autumn and winter birds and flowers.

These twelve paintings each have two different seals impressed upon them, for a total of 24 different seals. Of those, newly recognized seals on the works can be seen in the "To-Keiwa-shi" seal on the 5th panel of the right screen (5th painting), "Azana-iwaku-Keiwa" seal (7th painting), "To-shi-Keiwa" (10th painting) and "Nitto-To-Jokin (11th painting). The first panel on the right screen and the 6th panel on the left screen are inscribed with the date "Horeki 9" (1759), and thus we know that Jakuchu painted these works during the spring of his 44th year. That extremely productive year also saw the creation of five hanging scrolls from the Colorful Realm of Living Beings series and fifty fusuma sliding door panels for the Main Shoin of Rokuonji (Kinkakuji). This painting with its known production date is particularly important in the consideration of the development of Jakuchu's ink painting style.

The author is an art historian (Japanese painting) and curator of MIHO MUSEUM.

* * *

Plate 4 (color) Seated Image of Shoku

Wood

Fig. H. 88.6cm

Founders Hall, Engyoji, Hyogo Prefecture

By Yoshiteru Kawase

This wooden sculpture is said to be the image of Priest Shoku (1007). Shoku was a Tendai priest of the mid-Heian period, traditionally said to have founded Engyoji on Mt. Shosha in Hyogo prefecture in 966. This seated image is slightly bigger than life-size with a figure height of 88.6cm, with a head that is sharply pointed in the back. The eyes are downcast and the protruding eyebrows combine with the hands tucked into his sleeves in front of his waist to form a unique figural form.

According to production records, a fire occurred in the temple's Founders Memorial Hall in the 8th month of 1286, and this reduced the image created after Shoku's death to ashes. In 1288 the temple commissioned the Buddhist sculptor Keikai to created a new image based on a painted portrait. A glass jar containing Shoku's ashes had been found in the old sculpture, and records show that this same jar was placed inside the new sculpture.

This work was carved from kaya wood (torreya nucifera) and its style is generally faithful in an exaggerated expression, with naturally expressed drapery. Recent study of the image included an X-ray examination which revealed a globe-shaped, glass vessel, thought to contain bones and ash, inside the head, confirming the record about the transfer of the Shoku's remains.

In recent years, a portrait sculpture of a priest was discovered at the temple, greatly damaged overall but luckily with the carved surface of the head, torso and back area remaining in good condition. The carving and style appear to be from the end of the 10th century through the beginning of the 11th century, suggesting that this work dates almost back to the days of Shoku himself. It is possible that this figure was the very image damaged in the 1286 fire.

The author is an art historian (Japanese sculpture) and an investigator of the Fine Arts Division in the Agency for Cultural Affairs.

* * *

Research Material

The Self-Portrait of Matsudaira Sadanobu

Plate 5 (color)

Self-Portrait of Matsudaira Sadanobu

Hanging scroll, color on silk

H. 108.0cm, W. 110.0cm

Chinkokushukoku Shrine, Mie Prefecture

By Yasunao Kawanobe

Matsudaira Sadanobu (1759-1829) was a chief shogunal councilor and clan lord of the Shirakawa clan during the late Edo period. Born in Horeki 8・1758), he was the son of Tayasu Munetake, from one of the three Tokugawa families, and a descendant of the 8th Tokugawa shogun Yoshimune.

Today there are several images of Matsudaira Sadanobu known. The most famous example is the portrait in the Chinkokushukoku Shrine in Kuwana, Mie Prefecture, which is a self-portrait painted when he was 30 years of age. This image is said to have been used as a substitute for Sadanobu when he was absent from the Shirakawa clan lands.

In addition to this image there are several other images known which depict Sadanobu after his retirement and assumption of the artistic name Rakuo. The work in the collection of the Fukushima Prefectural Museum of Art is particularly well known. That image is also said to be a self-portrait. Another painting that closely resembles the Fukushima Museum image is today in Shogenji in Kuwana. The Shogenji work is stored in a box whose lid interior is inscribed in ink with the story of how the work was created. According to this box inscription, there was a self-portrait by Sadanobu of his own features, to which the oku-eshi painter to the shogunal family Kano Osanobu (1796-1846) jadded the body and garment sections. The portraits of Matsudaira Sadanobu are particularly fascinating materials in our understanding of the relationship between pre-modern clan lord portraits, self-portraiture and the work of shogunal oku-eshi painters.

The author is an art historian (Japanese painting) and curator of Fukushima Prefectural Museum

* * *

Translated by Martha J. McClintock

2011年4月19日 星期二

Treasures of the Middle Ages and Renaissance

Becker, Decorative Arts from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance





































Treasures of the Middle Ages and Renaissance


Eight centuries of European applied arts

When Kunstwerke und Geräthschaften des Mittelalters und der Renaissance (1852–1863) was published, what purchasers in fact bought was a small printed museum of unusual treasures. With 216 hand-colored copperplate engravings, the publication gives a comprehensive overview of applied arts in Europe from the 9th to the 16th centuries. The objects presented comprise furniture, metalwork, jewelry, tapestries, and works of bookbinding. Carefully selected masterpieces such as the gilt Corvinus goblet, an enamelled saltcellar, and medieval ivory combs are depicted, along with a decorative sword, now lost.

The editor Jakob Heinrich von Hefner-Alteneck (1811-1903) was head of the Royal Cabinet of Prints and Drawings in Munich and later director of the Bavarian National Museum. His work helped influence the creation of new museums of art and design – the South Kensington Museum in London (today the Victoria and Albert Museum), founded in 1852, being the very first – in which artists could study the hand-crafted masterpieces of earlier epochs.
Although the co-editor Carl Becker (1794-1859) commissioned various artists to make drawings of the historical originals for Kunstwerke und Geräthschaften, the signatures on the plates show that most of the illustrations stem from the hand of artist Jakob Heinrich von Hefner-Alteneck and he can therefore be considered as the work’s main draughtsman; considering that Becker died before the completion of the work, the most influential figure behind it was undoubtedly Hefner-Alteneck. Before his collaboration with Becker, Hefner-Alteneck had previously published Trachten des christlichen Mittelalters (Costumes of the Christian Middle Ages).

With their publication, Jakob Heinrich von Hefner-Alteneck and Carl Becker gave expression to the 19th century’s revived interest in the art of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. By selecting masterpieces from public and private collections, and reproducing them faithfully in pictures, they created a document of artistic quality in itself, which also provides evidence of works which have since been lost.

With this new edition, which includes a commentary, TASCHEN is making an important publication accessible once more, giving a glimpse of the treasure chambers of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. This complete reprint was created on the basis of an original copy in the Württembergische Landesbibliothek in Stuttgart.

The author:
Carsten-Peter Warncke studied art history, classical archaeology, and literature in Vienna, Heidelberg, and Hamburg, and received his doctorate from the latter in 1975. He is professor of art history at the University of Göttingen.

2011年4月17日 星期日

「原野之春─ 陳其茂的山海謳歌」版畫特展

「原野之春─ 陳其茂的山海謳歌」版畫特展




陳其茂先生(1926-2005)於1946年來到臺灣,先至基隆女中任教,之後,於1948年獲聘至花蓮師範。當時的他鎮日沉浸於東臺灣山川美景以及原 住民族的醇厚人情之中,深受感動之餘,便以木口版製作了三系列作品-「青春之歌」、「原野之春」及「天鵝湖月色」。這些描刻細膩、黑白分明的作品,充滿了 濃郁的臺灣鄉土氣息-自然、親切而溫馨,是臺灣早期現代版畫中為數不多的原住民族寫實版畫,其時代意義更顯珍貴,被版畫界譽為「臺灣現代版畫的拓荒者」。

國立臺灣大學圖書館於2010年獲得陳其茂夫人、臺大傑出校友─丁貞婉教授,慷慨捐贈陳其茂先生的版畫與油畫遺作共三百餘幅及所藏圖書近六千冊,安排於 2011年4月18日下午2:00於臺灣大學圖書館,舉行捐贈書畫作暨名家手稿展的開幕儀式;同時於地下一樓「臺灣原住民族圖書資訊中心」舉辦「原野之春 ─ 陳其茂的山海謳歌」版畫特展,展品以陳其茂創作的臺灣原住民族及原野風光相關版畫為主。

2011年4月,最美的早春時節,國立臺灣大學與臺灣原住民族圖書資訊中心邀請您前來欣賞「原野之春─ 陳其茂的山海謳歌版畫特展」,從陳其茂的版畫世界中,體會臺灣最質樸親切的山海子民風貌。

「原野之春─ 陳其茂的山海謳歌」版畫特展
指導:行政院原住民族委員會
主辦:國立臺灣大學圖書館‧臺灣原住民族圖書資訊中心
地點:國立臺灣大學圖書館地下一樓 臺灣原住民族圖書資訊中心館內
時間:2011.04.18-2011.05.31
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電話:(02)3366-3776

2011年4月11日 星期一

德國"啟蒙藝術展"/ 艾未未的被捕,進一步激化了爭論


關於"啟蒙的藝術"的爭論
艾未未的被捕,進一步激化了德國媒體和文化界對"啟蒙的藝術"的爭論。德國文化部長要求中國政府釋放艾未未,同時表示反對提前結束展覽;諾貝爾文學獎得主米勒則抨擊展覽是粉飾專制政權。


德國文化部長貝恩德•諾伊曼(Bernd Neumann,基民盟)在4月10日的《星期日圖片報》撰文寫道:“應該強烈要求中國政府立即釋放艾未未,我們必須為此繼續加強干預,因為,不能讓專制政權為所欲為的拘捕行徑繼續下去,公開的國際壓力會有助益。” 但是,他同時拒絕提前結束“啟蒙的藝術”展,認為這個​​展覽倡導寬容和自由,必須利用伴隨展覽的活動為中國的藝術自由而努力。



撤不撤展成為爭論焦點



諾貝爾文學獎得主赫爾塔米勒•米勒(Herta Müller)對《焦點》雜誌表示,她不理解為什麼德國人一定要把最好的藝術品提供給國家博物館這樣一個中共政權的“面子工程” ,這些藝術品現在成了“一個粉飾專制政權的宣傳秀”。



米勒主張對中國當權者採取“果斷的路線”,她說:“我認為,這個政權只有被孤立,才會學到一點該如何對待自己的人民。專制獨裁只有在壓力下才會學習。德國目前對中國採取的,恰恰是與壓力相反的做法。”

聯邦政府人權事務專員馬庫斯•勒寧(Markus Löning)則主張繼續展覽,他對《德新社》表示,這個展覽正是讓中共“最為惱火的事”,“啟蒙的思想從實質上說就是主張人權和個體的尊嚴,這些恰恰是我們必須向中國輸送的價值觀。”

主辦“啟蒙的藝術”展的三大德國博物館館長4月9日在《法蘭克福匯報》聯名發表文章,表示“完全贊成”針對中國當局的批評,但是反對提前撤展。



他們寫道:“基於當前的事件關閉在北京的展覽是沒有意義的。……如果我們拒絕合作,又將如何認識和評價一個國家的文化、價值、理解力及其民眾呢?對博物館來說,與收藏品來源國也包括與專制的政治制度維持關係,是理所當然的。文化項目不僅是超越邊界的,而且也是超越制度的。”



《每日鏡報》(4月10日)對西方大博物館被“中國的巨額市場吸引”提出批評,認為它們“日益以利潤為準,將市場優先於道德”。評論寫道:“一個得到國家資助保障的機構領導人,如德累斯頓國家藝術博物館館長,附和一個沒有法制的暴政制度,就更加糟糕。他必須為艾未未爭取自由,他可以將藝術珍品取回來,此外他在北京並不會失去什麼。”

無法迴避艾未未

《南德意志報》(4月10日)認為,伴隨展覽的10場沙龍“從而也在政治上具有爆炸性”。在星期六(4月9日)的沙龍上,儘管人們不願明顯地“冒犯中國當權者”,大都迴避艾未未這個名字, “可是,艾未未被捕的消息,就像揮之不去的陰影一樣,出沒於克勒惠支的木雕上,穿行於沙龍的所有問候、報告和討論發言中。”

報導說,“……對話總比不對話好,儘管這次只有60人參加,其中德國人比中國人多。中國人要么害怕了,因為'啟蒙的藝術'已經成為政治事件,要么他們就被警告不要參加沙龍。”



編譯:林泉

責編:敏芬

(以上內容摘譯自其它媒體,不必然代表德國之聲觀點)

---3/28
德國"啟蒙藝術展"在北京開幕在即,德文媒體認為,這一展出的現實意義在於,啟蒙時代所奠定的人權和自由價值恰恰是專制的中國今天所需要的。
但是,德國主辦方告誡不可期待過高。

《歐洲在線雜誌》(3月24日)刊登《德新社》記者為該刊撰寫的報導,題為"'啟蒙藝術'在中國具有極大的現實意義",認為"自由取代專制"、"理性取代教條"等啟蒙運動的價值"在當今中國可能會產生政治爆炸效應"。

該文寫道: "可以'在天安門廣場旁邊啟蒙'嗎?對於這個問題,德國在中國迄今為止最為重要的文化項目必須予以回答。4月1日,'啟蒙藝術展'將在北京裝修一新的國家博物館開幕,德國外長韋斯特韋勒(自由民主黨)親臨其境。這個地方很尷尬,博物館緊挨著天安門廣場,1989年,大學生在那里為了爭取民主而絕食;博物館北邊是長安街,當年坦克車和軍隊血腥鎮壓人民起義的地方。

"博物館的後面是公安部和國家安全部,它們如今採取一切手段,阻止中國人民'被啟蒙'去自己掌握命運。僅僅這個地點,就已經產生'張力'或者'通往現在的橋樑',德國組織者對此津津樂道。通過'對話啟蒙' 這個附帶節目,應讓中國方面在'沙龍'中了解在歐洲奠定了人權和自由價值的那個時代及其思想。"

報導指出: "啟蒙運動的意義一直影響到今天。在18世紀,人的理性成為萬物的標準,公民們奮起反抗統治者的無限權力。自由取代專制,在今天中國的共產黨專制下,這個要求太合乎時代的需要了。但是,不要期待過高,德國駐華大使施明賢(Michael Schaefer)說:'我們想要的不是政治教育,而是社會對話。'他說,所涉及的不是'藍圖',德國不想將自己的社會模式描繪成'唯一造福的製度'。

雙方的對話核心不同

"組織對話的墨卡託基金會(Stiftung Mercator)的安德烈•維肯斯(André Wilkens)想要的是'相互學習':'我們來中國不是要從事(思想)革新工作,而是要推進交流。' 維肯斯證實:在選擇參加對話的人選時,中國的合作夥伴當然是有發言權的。'我們在所有事務上都與國家博物館協調。'比如,那個麻煩的世界聞名的中國藝術家艾未未,因為批評政權而不許在中國開辦展覽,不會參加這次的正式討論。但是,德國方面想邀請他參加一個畫廊的小一些的非正式論壇。"

這篇文章最後寫道:"對中國方面來說,對話的核心也不一定是啟蒙運動的價值如思想解放或者批評性的公眾。他們特別強調歐洲發展的黑暗篇章:第二次世界大戰,屠殺猶太人,尤其是殖民主義,中國也曾受過其害。維肯斯告知:'中國方面問道:我們可以從中學到什麼?'誰要是有這個想法,中國應該遵從啟蒙運動的政治價值並且以歐洲為榜樣,中國的對話夥伴也已經準備好了回答:'你們或許想讓我們也經歷這些陰暗面嗎?'"

編譯:林泉

責編:達揚



2011年4月7日 星期四

to dig up remains of 'Mona Lisa model'

Italian archaeologists to dig up remains of 'Mona Lisa model'

Italian archaeologists are to search for a long-lost tomb which may contain the remains of the woman who inspired the Mona Lisa.

Italian archaeologists to dig up remains of 'Mona Lisa model'
The archaeologists could solve a mystery which has intrigued art historians for centuries

A team of researchers announced on Tuesday that they will carry out excavations beneath a convent in Florence, believed to be the burial place of Lisa Gherardini.

She was the wife of a rich Florentine silk merchant and is believed by most scholars to have been the model for Leonardo da Vinci’s famously enigmatic portrait.

The archaeologists' ultimate aim is to find enough skull fragments to be able to reconstruct her face, enabling a direct comparison to be made with the Mona Lisa.

It could solve a mystery which has intrigued art historians for centuries – the identity of the subject of the world's best known painting, which hangs in the Louvre Museum in Paris.

In addition to the suggestion that the Mona Lisa was based on Gherardini, it has also been proposed that the painting was inspired by Florentine noblewomen, courtesans, street prostitutes, the artist's gay lover and even da Vinci himself.

The team will be led by Silvano Vinceti, an art historian who last year announced that he had found the remains of the Renaissance genius Caravaggio, although his claim was disputed by other scholars.

Digging will take place beneath the former Convent of St Ursula in central Florence, where Gherardini is believed to have died in her sixties in 1542.

The team will use ground-penetration radar to search for forgotten tombs inside the building.

If they discover human remains, they will sift through the bones to identify any that are compatible with a woman of Gherardini's age.

They then plan to conduct carbon dating and extract DNA, which will be compared to that extracted from the bones of Gherardini's children, some of whom are buried in a basilica in Florence.

But there is doubt over the project before it has even started.

Giuseppe Pallanti, an authority on da Vinci, claimed last year that Gherardini's remains were most likely dug up 30 years ago, when work was carried out to convert the former convent into a police barracks, and dumped in a municipal rubbish site on the edge of Florence.

The work was carried out long before the discovery of Gherardini's death certificate, which suggested that she was buried in the convent.

Milan Cathedral

驚歎!花500年才建好的絕美藝術品




米蘭大教堂是世界上最大的哥特式教堂,坐落於米蘭市中心的大教堂廣場,教堂長158米,最寬處93米。



塔尖最高處達108.5米。總面積11700平方米,可容納35000人。它是僅次於羅馬的聖彼得教堂和西班牙的塞維利亞教堂的歐洲第三大教堂。



米蘭大教堂由米蘭的第一位公爵(GaleazzoViscontiⅢ)於1386年開始興建,各國工程師紛紛設計方案,整個教堂都是以哥特式的建築方法來興建。



1500年完成拱頂,並於1577年完成了初步的建築,開始供信奉天主教人士參拜。1774年中央塔上的鍍金聖母瑪麗亞雕像就位。1897年最後完工,歷時五個世紀。



米蘭大教堂在裝飾及設計方面,顯得相當細膩,極富藝術色彩,整個教堂本身甚至可以說是一個藝術品。



教堂大門內的日晷是1786年建造的,陽光自堂頂射入時,隨著地球的旋轉,陽光的移動,聖人雕像一年四季均可準確指出每天的中午時刻。



教堂內外牆等處均點綴著聖人、聖女雕像,僅教堂外就有3159尊之多,其中2245尊是外側雕刻,教堂頂有135個尖塔,每一塔頂立一塑像,另有150個水道,410個大理石支架,上面均裝飾有浮雕。



最大的尖塔居於堂頂正中,高達108.5米,上面是一座高4.16米的鍍金聖母雕像,這一大教堂最初的正式名稱為“聖母誕生大教堂”。正面大門下半部為巴羅克式,上半部為哥特式。



教堂內部也很有特色,從祭壇、馬賽克畫至寶物室,都值得觀賞。最神奇的是教堂內祭壇上供奉著的一根釘子,據說是取自耶穌被釘死的十字架上。



不管從那一個方向看,米蘭大教堂呈現的壯麗風貌及豐富的歷史內涵,都很令人感動。


米蘭大教堂

米蘭大教堂(Churchof Duomo),義大利著名的天主教堂,又稱“杜莫主教堂”,位於義大利米蘭市,規模居世界第二。米蘭位於阿爾卑斯山南麓奧隆那河畔,是一座歷史悠久的古老名城,是義大利的第二大城市。


米蘭大教堂廣場

它於西元1386年開工建造,1500年完成拱頂,1774年中央塔上的鍍金聖母瑪麗亞雕像就位。1897年最後完工,歷時五個世紀。不僅是米蘭的象徵,也是米蘭的中心。拿破崙曾於1805年在米蘭大教堂舉行加冕儀式。


米蘭大教堂鳥瞰一面



米蘭大堂是義大利最大的哥特式主教堂,有“米蘭的象徵”之美稱。主教堂始建於1386年,由米蘭望族吉安·維斯孔蒂主持奠基。1813年教堂的大部分建築完工。至1965年教堂正面最後一座銅門被安裝,才算全部竣工。


教堂最高的尖塔群



米蘭大教堂的建造歷經五個多世紀才完工,因此,它的建築風格包含了哥特式,新古典式,和新哥特式又稱巴羅克式。



主教堂用白色大理石砌成,是歐洲最大的大理石建築之一,有“大理石山”之稱。



米蘭大教堂是世界上最大的哥特式教堂,也是規模僅次於梵蒂岡聖彼得大教堂的世界第二大教堂。德國、法國、義大利等國建築師先後參與主教堂設計,彙集了多種民族的建築藝術風格,德意志風格影響尤為顯著。



教堂內部非常寬廣。均由白色大理石築成,大廳寬達59米,長130米,中間拱頂最高45米,供奉著十五世紀時米蘭大主教的遺體,頭部是白銀築就,軀體是主教真身。擁有尖拱、壁柱、花窗櫺。



相較于教堂外部的華麗裝飾,教堂的內部就顯得低調許多。


花窗櫺



教堂內的大窗共有24扇,高越20米,均為彩色玻璃畫,描繪的是宗教故事。教堂內部的彩繪玻璃透過光的照射,使色彩更加的生動。


Wikipedia
Milan Cathedral

Duomo di Milano from the Square.

Basic information
Location Milan, Italy
Geographic coordinates 45°27′51″N 9°11′29″E / 45.46417°N 9.19139°E / 45.46417; 9.19139Coordinates: 45°27′51″N 9°11′29″E / 45.46417°N 9.19139°E / 45.46417; 9.19139
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Architectural description
Groundbreaking 1386
Completed 1965
Specifications
Length 157 metres (515 ft)
Width 92 metres (302 ft)
Width (nave) 16.75 metres (55 ft)
Height (max) 45 metres (148 ft)
Dome height (outer) 65.5 metres (215 ft)
Spire height 106.5 metres (349 ft)
Materials Brick with Candoglia marble
Plate celebrating the laying of the first stone in 1386.
Interior view of the Duomo di Milano

Milan Cathedral (Italian: Duomo di Milano; Milanese: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan in Lombardy, northern Italy. Dedicated to Santa Maria Nascente (Saint Mary Nascent), it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, currently Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi.

The Gothic cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the fourth largest cathedral in the world.[1]

Contents

History

Milan's layout, with streets either radiating from the Duomo or circling it, reveals that the Duomo occupies what was the most central site in Roman Mediolanum, that of the public basilica facing the forum. Saint Ambrose's 'New Basilica' was built on this site at the beginning of the 5th century, with an adjoining basilica added in 836. When a fire damaged both buildings in 1075, they were later rebuilt as the Duomo[2]

The beginning

In 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction in a rayonnant Late Gothic style more typically French than Italian. Construction coincided with the accession to power in Milan of the archbishop's cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, and was meant as a reward to the noble and working classes, who had suffered under his tyrannical Visconti predecessor Barnabò. Before actual work began, three main buildings were demolished: the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring, while the old church of Sta. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry. Enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress. The construction program was strictly regulated under the "Fabbrica del Duomo", which had 300 employees led by first chief engineer Simone da Orsenigo. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes.

In 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its strong Gothic imprint. Ten years later another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, as the masons needed new technical aid to lift stones to an unprecedented height. Mignot declared all the work done up till then as in pericolo di ruina ("peril of ruin"), as it had been done sine scienzia ("without science"). In the following years Mignot's forecasts proved untrue, but anyway they spurred Galeazzo's engineers to improve their instruments and techniques. Work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402, almost half the cathedral was complete. Construction, however, stalled almost totally until 1480, due to lack of money and ideas: the most notable works of this period were the tombs of Marco Carelli and Pope Martin V (1424) and the windows of the apse (1470s), of which those extant portray St. John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de' Mottis, and Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, both by Niccolò da Varallo. In 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay.

In 1500 to 1510, under Ludovico Sforza, the octagonal cupola was completed, and decorated in the interior with four series of 15 statues each, portraying saints, prophets, sibyls and other characters of the Bible. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dell'Amadeo ("Amadeo's Little Spire"), constructed 1507-1510. This is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church.

The famous "Madonnina" atop the main spire of the cathedral, a baroque gilded bronze statue
Giovanni Antonio Amadeo on the "Amadeo's Little Spire".

During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained largely unfinished, and some bays of the nave and the transepts were still missing. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build a large organ for the north side of the choir, and Giuseppe Meda provided four of the sixteen pales which were to decorate the altar area (the program was completed by Federico Borromeo). In 1562, Marco d' Lopez's St. Bartholomew and the famous Trivulzio candelabrum (12th century) were added.

Charles Borromeo

After the accession of the ambitious Carlo Borromeo to the archbishop's throne, all lay monuments were removed from the Duomo. These included the tombs of Giovanni, Barnabò and Filippo Maria Visconti, Francesco I and his wife Bianca, Galeazzo Maria and Lodovico Sforza, which were brought to unknown destinations. However, Borromeo's main intervention was the appointment, in 1571, of Pellegrino Pellegrini as chief engineer— a contentious move, since to appoint Pellegrino, who was not a lay brother of the duomo, required a revision of the Fabbrica's statutes.

Borromeo and Pellegrini strove for a new, Renaissance appearance for the cathedral, that would emphasise its Roman / Italian nature, and subdue the Gothic style, which was now seen as foreign. As the façade still was largely incomplete, Pellegrini designed a "Roman" style one, with columns, obelisks and a large tympanum. When Pellegrini's design was revealed, a competition for the design of the facade was announced, and this elicited nearly a dozen entries, including one by Antonio Barca [3]

This design was never carried out, but the interior decoration continued: in 1575-1585 the presbytery was rebuilt, while new altars and the baptistry were added in the nave.

Wooden choir stalls were constructed by 1614 for the main altar by Francesco Brambilla.

In 1577 Borromeo finally consecrated the whole edifice as a new church, distinct from the old Santa Maria Maggiore and Santa Tecla (which had been unified in 1549 after heavy disputes).

17th century

The cathedral as it appeared in 1745.

At the beginning of the 17th century Federico Borromeo had the foundations of the new façade laid by Francesco Maria Richini and Fabio Mangone. Work continued until 1638 with the construction of five portals and two middle windows. In 1649, however, the new chief architect Carlo Buzzi introduced a striking revolution: the façade was to revert to original Gothic style, including the already finished details within big Gothic pilasters and two giant belfries. Other designs were provided by, among others, Filippo Juvarra (1733) and Luigi Vanvitelli (1745), but all remained unapplied. In 1682 the façade of Santa Maria Maggiore was demolished and the cathedral's roof covering completed.

In 1762 one of the main features of the cathedral, the Madonnina's spire, was erected at the dizzying height of 108.5 m. The spire was designed by Francesco Croce and sports at the top a famous polychrome Madonnina statue, designed by Giuseppe Perego that befits the original stature of the cathedral.[4] Given Milan's notoriously damp and foggy climate, the Milanese consider it a fair-weather day when the Madonnina is visible from a distance, as it is so often covered by mist.

Completion

The Cathedral in 1856.

On May 20, 1805, Napoleon Bonaparte, about to be crowned King of Italy, ordered the façade to be finished. In his enthusiasm, he assured that all expenses would fall to the French treasurer, who would reimburse the Fabbrica for the real estate it had to sell. Even though this reimbursement was never paid, it still meant that finally, within only seven years, the Cathedral had its façade completed. The new architect, Francesco Soave, largely followed Buzzi's project, adding some neo-Gothic details to the upper windows. As a form of thanksgiving, a statue of Napoleon was placed at the top of one of the spires. Napoleon was crowned King of Italy at the Duomo.

In the following years, most of the missing arches and spires were constructed. The statues on the southern wall were also finished, while in 1829-1858, new stained glass windows replaced the old ones, though with less aesthetically significant results. The last details of the cathedral were finished only in the 20th century: the last gate was inaugurated on January 6, 1965. This date is considered the very end of a process which had proceeded for generations, although even now, some uncarved blocks remain to be completed as statues. The Duomo's main facade went under renovation from 2003 to early 2009: as of February 2009, it has been completely uncovered, showing again the colours of the Candoglia marble.

Architecture and art

The plan consists of a nave with four side-aisles, crossed by a transept and then followed by choir and apse. The height of the nave is about 45 meters, the highest Gothic vaults of a complete church (less than the 48 meters of Beauvais Cathedral, which was never completed).

The roof is open to tourists (for a fee), which allows many a close-up view of some spectacular sculpture that would otherwise be unappreciated. The roof of the cathedral is renowned for the forest of openwork pinnacles and spires, set upon delicate flying buttresses.

The cathedral's five broad naves, divided by 40 pillars, are reflected in the hierarchic openings of the facade. Even the transepts have aisles. The nave columns are 24.5 metres (80 ft) high, and the apsidal windows are 20.7 x 8.5 metres (68 x 28 feet). The huge building is of brick construction, faced with marble from the quarries which Gian Galeazzo Visconti donated in perpetuity to the cathedral chapter. Its maintenance and repairs are very complicated.

Milan’s cathedral has recently developed a new lighting system, based on LED lights.

Aesthetic Judgments

The cathedral was built over several hundred years in a number of contrasting styles and the quality of the workmanship varies markedly. Reactions to it have ranged from admiration to disfavour. The Guida d’Italia: Milano 1998 (Touring Club Editore, p.154) points out that the early Romantics tended to praise it in “the first intense enthusiasms for Gothic.” As the Gothic Revival brought in a purer taste, condemnation was often equally intense.

John Ruskin commented acidly that the cathedral steals "from every style in the world: and every style spoiled. The cathedral is a mixture of Perpendicular with Flamboyant, the latter being peculiarly barbarous and angular, owing to its being engrafted, not on a pure, but a very early penetrative Gothic … The rest of the architecture among which this curious Flamboyant is set is a Perpendicular with horizontal bars across: and with the most detestable crocketing, utterly vile. Not a ray of invention in a single form… Finally the statues all over are of the worst possible common stonemasons’ yard species, and look pinned on for show. The only redeeming character about the whole being the frequent use of the sharp gable … which gives lightness, and the crowding of the spiry pinnacles into the sky.” (Notebooks[M.6L]). The plastered ceiling painted to imitate elaborate tracery carved in stone particularly aroused his contempt as a “gross degradation”.[5]

While appreciating the force of Ruskin’s criticisms, Henry James was more appreciative: “A structure not supremely interesting, not logical, not … commandingly beautiful, but grandly curious and superbly rich. … If it had no other distinction it would still have that of impressive, immeasurable achievement … a supreme embodiment of vigorous effort.”[6]

Main monuments and sights

The interior of the cathedral includes numerous monuments and artworks. These include:

  • The Archbishop Alberto da Intimiano's sarcophagus, which is overlooked by a Crucifix in copper laminae (a replica).
  • The sarcophagi of the archbishops Ottone Visconti and Giovanni Visconti, created by a Campionese master in the 14th century.
  • The sarcophagus of Marco Carelli, who donated 35,000 ducati to accelerate the construction of the cathedral.
  • The three magnificent altars by Pellegrino Pellegrini, which include the notable Federico Zuccari's Visit of St. Peter to St. Agatha jailed.
  • In the right transept, the monument to Gian Giacomo Medici di Marignano, called "Medeghino", by Leone Leoni, and the adjacent Renaissance marble altar, decorated with gilt bronze statues.
  • In front of the former mausoleum is the most renowned work of art of the cathedral, the St. Bartholomew statue by Marco D'Agrate.
  • The presbytery is a late Renaissance masterpiece composing a choir, a Temple by Pellegrini, two pulpits with giant atlantes covered in copper and bronze, and two large organs. Around the choir the two sacristies' portals, some frescoes and a fifteenth-century statue of Martin V by Jacopino da Tradate) can be seen.
  • The transepts house the Trivulzio Candelabrum, which is in two pieces. The base (attributed to Nicolas of Verdun, 12th century), characterized by a fantastic ensemble of vines, vegetables and imaginary animals; and the stem, of the mid-16th century.
  • In the left aisle, the Arcimboldi monument by Alessi and Romanesque figures depicting the Apostles in red marble and the neo-Classic baptistry by Pellegrini.
  • A small red light bulb in the dome above the apse marks the spot where one of the nails reputedly from the Crucifixion of Christ has been placed.
  • In November-December, in the days surrounding the birthdate of Saint Charles Borromeo, a series of large canvases, the Quadroni are exhibited along the nave.
  • The 5-manual, 225-rank pipe-organ, built jointly by the Tamburini and Mascioni Italian organbuilding firms on Mussolini's command, is currently the largest organ in all of Italy

In literature

Poet Percy Bysshe Shelley used to read literature inside the Duomo.[1] Alfred, Lord Tennyson enjoyed the view of the Alps from the Duomo roof.[1]

The American writer and journalist Mark Twain visited Milan in the summer of 1867. He dedicated chapter 18 of Innocents Abroad to the Milan Cathedral, including many physical and historical details, and a now uncommon visit to the roof. He describes the Duomo as follows:

What a wonder it is! So grand, so solemn, so vast! And yet so delicate, so airy, so graceful! A very world of solid weight, and yet it seems ...a delusion of frostwork that might vanish with a breath!... The central one of its five great doors is bordered with a bas-relief of birds and fruits and beasts and insects, which have been so ingeniously carved out of the marble that they seem like living creatures-- and the figures are so numerous and the design so complex, that one might study it a week without exhausting its interest...everywhere that a niche or a perch can be found about the enormous building, from summit to base, there is a marble statue, and every statue is a study in itself...Away above, on the lofty roof, rank on rank of carved and fretted spires spring high in the air, and through their rich tracery one sees the sky beyond. ... (Up on) the roof...springing from its broad marble flagstones, were the long files of spires, looking very tall close at hand, but diminishing in the distance...We could see, now, that the statue on the top of each was the size of a large man, though they all looked like dolls from the street... They say that the Cathedral of Milan is second only to St. Peter's at Rome. I cannot understand how it can be second to anything made by human hands.

Oscar Wilde visited Milan in June 1875. In a letter to his mother he wrote: "The Cathedral is an awful failure. Outside the design is monstrous and inartistic. The over-elaborated details stuck high up where no one can see them; everything is vile in it; it is, however, imposing and gigantic as a failure, through its great size and elaborate execution."

In Italian Hours Henry James describes “a certain exhibition that I privately enjoyed of the relics of St. Charles Borromeus. This holy man lies at his eternal rest in a small but gorgeous sepulchral chapel … and for the modest sum of five francs you may have his shrivelled mortality unveiled and gaze at it with whatever reserves occur to you. The Catholic Church never renounces a chance of the sublime for fear of a chance of the ridiculous--especially when the chance of the sublime may be the very excellent chance of five francs. The performance in question, of which the good San Carlo paid in the first instance the cost, was impressive certainly, but as a monstrous matter or a grim comedy may still be. The little sacristan, having secured his audience, … lighted a couple of extra candles and proceeded to remove from above the altar, by means of a crank, a sort of sliding shutter, just as you may see a shop-boy do of a morning at his master's window. In this case too a large sheet of plate-glass was uncovered, and to form an idea of the étalage you must imagine that a jeweller, for reasons of his own, has struck an unnatural partnership with an undertaker. The black mummified corpse of the saint is stretched out in a glass coffin, clad in his mouldering canonicals, mitred, crosiered and gloved, glittering with votive jewels. It is an extraordinary mixture of death and life; the desiccated clay, the ashen rags, the hideous little black mask and skull, and the living, glowing, twinkling splendour of diamonds, emeralds and sapphires. The collection is really fine, and many great historic names are attached to the different offerings. Whatever may be the better opinion as to the future of the Church, I can't help thinking she will make a figure in the world so long as she retains this great fund of precious "properties," this prodigious capital decoratively invested and scintillating throughout Christendom at effectively-scattered points.”

In popular culture

  • The 1934 song "O mia bela Madonina" by Giovanni d'Anzi about the golden Madonna statue on the spire can be considered today an unofficial "city anthem" of Milan.
  • Luchino Visconti's 1960 film Rocco e i suoi fratelli, set in Milan, has a scene which takes place on the roof of the cathedral.
  • Many Milanese dialect speakers, due to the centuries needed to complete the Duomo, use the "Fabbrica del Duomo" ("Fabrica del Dom" in the dialect) as an adjective (sometimes humorously, sometimes not) to describe an extremely long, too complex task, maybe even impossible to complete.[1]
  • The Italian phrase "mangiare a ufo", stemming from the Milanese dialect mangià a uf meaning "being paid for a job not done", comes from the fact that the goods used to build the Duomo wore the inscription "A.U.F.", shorthand for Latin "Ad Usum Fabricae" (to be used for the construction) and were exempt from taxation.
  • A souvenir model of the cathedral was thrown at the nose of Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi during an attack on December 13, 2009. [7]
  • In the song "In Every Age" from the musical Titanic. Comparing the building with the Pyramids of Egypt and the Titanic as one of the greatest feats of architecture.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Duomo". Frommer's. http://travel.nytimes.com/travel/guides/europe/italy/milan/25103/duomo/attraction-detail.html. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
  2. ^ Duomo is a generic term in Italian meaning "Cathedral", which technically refers to a church which is the official seat of an archbishop. It is derived from domus, a Latin term for "home" or "house", referring to the role of the church as home of God.
  3. ^ Ticozzi, Stefano (1830). Dizionario degli architetti, scultori, pittori, intagliatori in rame ed in pietra, coniatori di medaglie, musaicisti, niellatori, intarsiatori d’ogni etá e d’ogni nazione (Volume 1). Gaetano Schiepatti; Digitized by Googlebooks, January 24, 2007. p. 110. http://books.google.com/books?id=0ownAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA5&dq=Stefano+Ticozzi+Dizionario.
  4. ^ Sylvia Tombesi Walton 2005, Milan, the Lakes and Lombardy TimeOut Books, ISBN 9781904978091
  5. ^ The Seven Lamps of Architecture, Bibliolife Reproduction Series p. 41
  6. ^ Italian Hours, Bibliobazaar, p. 92
  7. ^ Italy's PM Silvio Berlusconi is bloodied by attack. BBC News, December 13, 2009.


External links