2008年5月25日 星期日

James Wines (1932- )

American architect and sculptor. Founder of the design team SITE (Sculpture in the Environment), in 1969, he was concerned to fuse art and architecture, integrating both. The firm is best known for the Best Products Retail Stores, such as the Indeterminate Façade, Houston, TX (1974–5), and the Tilt Showroom, Towson, MD (1976–8), the latter with a front resembling a sheet of material lifted up to display the showroom behind. The suggestion of instability in apparently crumbling façades or irrational elements in SITE's work attracted much attention in the 1970s and 1980s. More recently Wines has been concerned with environmental problems, e.g. the decommissioning of Nuclear Power Stations.
  • Kalman (1994)
  • Jodidio (1993, 1996)
  • SITE et al. (1980)
  • Wines (1987)
  • Wines et al. (1989)

SITE (Sculpture in the Environment) and James Wines. Highrise of Homes, project, Exterior perspective. 1981
SITE (Sculpture in the Environment). (American, founded 1970) and James Wines. (American, born 1932). Highrise of Homes, project, Exterior perspective. 1981. Ink and charcoal on paper, 22 x 24" (55.9 x 61 cm). Best Products Company Inc. Architecture Fund. © 2008 James Wines

Publication excerpt
Matilda McQuaid, ed., Envisioning Architecture: Drawings from The Museum of Modern Art, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2002, p. 220

James Wines, a founding member in 1970 of the SITE (Sculpture In The Environment) architectural group, described the Highrise of Homes project as a "vertical community" to "accommodate people's conflicting desires to enjoy the cultural advantages of an urban center, without sacrificing the private home identity and garden space associated with suburbia." The plan calls for a steel-and-concrete, eight-to-ten-story, U-shaped building frame erected in a densely populated urban area. The developer would sell lots within this frame, each lot the site for a house and garden in a style chosen by the purchaser. The result would be a distinct villagelike community on each floor, with interior streets. A central mechanical core would serve these homes and gardens, while shops, offices, and other facilities on the ground and middle floors would provide for the residents' needs.
Whereas urban skyscrapers are normally made up of identical, stacked, boxlike units, the Highrise of Homes would allow flexibility and individual choice. The wide variety of house styles, gardens, hedges, and fences described in this intricate rendering provides a sense of the personal identity and human connection that are generally erased by the austere and repetitive elements of architectural formalism. Placing the sociological and psychological needs of the inhabitant over the aesthetic sensibilities of the architect, Wines produces a merge of suburb and city, a collage of architectures collectively created by its inhabitants and by the art of chance. Developers considered Battery Park City, New York, as a possible location for the project, but it was never built.
Bevin Cline

Related links
Numbers in brackets refer to the number of works available in the online collection.
Artist: SITE (Sculpture in the Environment) [2]
About this artist James Wines [2]

Department: Architecture and Design [1390]
Classification: A&D Architectural Drawing [306]
Date: 1981
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Currents; Nature's Revenge On 5th Ave.

Published: April 7, 1988
LEAD: AT the new Williwear shop for men and women, James Wines has created an interior that he calls ''nature's revenge on Fifth Avenue.''
AT the new Williwear shop for men and women, James Wines has created an interior that he calls ''nature's revenge on Fifth Avenue.''
Mr. Wines was faced with a 2,500-square-foot space that was already in a state of disrepair. The columns were cracked, and so were the floors.
So, inspired by Angkor Wat, the ruin in Cambodia, Mr. Wines has translated rural decay to an urban setting. Now, in the pale gray shop that will open Tuesday at 119 Fifth Avenue (19th Street), vines of ivy burst through the floors, entwine the Corninthian columns, cling to the walls, wrap around mannequins and curl around the cash register. (The vines, actually grape, are real; the leaves are fake.) As startling as it is to be in an interior that resembles an exterior, the ambiance is remarkably serene. ''The shop feels like a garden and is a neutral background for the brilliant colors of the clothes,'' said Mr. Wines, a principal in SITE Projects Inc., a Manhattan architectural concern.
''We want to show our customers exactly how different artists that we work with have influenced us,'' said Laurie Mallet, above, the president and chairwoman of Williwear Ltd., and to do this, the store has a Friends' Corner. There, customers can buy Mr. Wines's new book, ''De-Architecture'' (Rizzoli; cloth, $40; paper, $25), and records by Peter Gordon, who has composed music for Williwear fashion shows.

Dangerous ideas: Architecture in the age of ecology
A conversation with James Wines

Research Unplugged host
James Wines Photo by Emily Rowlands
February 23, 2005
James Wines, professor of architecture at Penn State, shared his views on "green architecture" for the February 23 conversation of Research Unplugged, the first session of the spring season.
Building on the themes of his most recent book, Green Architecture, Wines discussed the challenges of creating environmentally-friendly architecture. In addition to teaching, Wines is founder, president and creative director of SITE, an architecture and environmental arts organization in New York City that takes a multidisciplinary approach to the fields of architecture, interior design, environmental art, landscape architecture, and graphic design.
Wines fears that most architects are too focused on the aesthetics or functionality of their buildings without regard for how the buildings affect the environment. "The construction of human shelter consumes one third of the world's energy," said Wines. "This is of particular concern to the United States because Americans consume a disproportionate amount of the world's resources," he added.
According to Wines, there are several ways that a building can be "green." Referring to images of buildings and public spaces, he illustrated that several different styles and types can fit the definition of "green." Buildings that use renewable energy, such as solar or wind, buildings that use water and foliage for cooling, or buildings that are built into the earth in such a way as to minimize dependence on electricity are all examples of "green architecture." One building he showed during his presentation was literally wrapped in recycled water. "This piece of architecture engages all the senses," said Wines. "You can hear it, touch it, feel it, and smell it."
Wines also used examples of urban planning that allows for — or better yet, encourages — people to walk or ride bicycles as another important means for creating public space that helps preserve the environment. He specifically noted the university campuses in Irvine, California and Toronto, Canada.
An often overlooked aspect of green architecture is recycling buildings — renovating and retrofitting them for a new life, as Wines described it. "However, a building must be aesthetically pleasing to begin with for tenants to want to renovate," he said. "Architecture must never abandon its artistry so that buildings can have a longer life." He noted that his own building at Penn State (much to his chagrin) will be demolished this summer as his department is moved to a new facility.
Architecture — the buildings we use every day — is an integral part of our lives. As such, Wines believes that the creation and use of more "green" architecture in our buildings and public spaces is vital for our planet's sustainability and our local communities' health.
—Christian Anderson
James Wines, B.A., is professor of architecture at Penn State and president of SITE, an architecture and environmental arts organization in New York City; juw3@psu.edu. Christian Anderson, cka108@psu.edu, is a graduate student in higher education. He is a member of the Research Unplugged Committee.

Brinker International’s “Chili Pepper” building in Aurora, Colorado. This project was envisioned by Chili’s as a landmark building representative of the concept’s unique ability to establish and maintain the Chili’s culture for twenty years. Designed by world-renowned architect James Wines of SITE Environmental Design, the unusually shaped Chili Pepper building was a challenge to obtain design approval by the City of Aurora. Working closely with the City Design Staff, HDGroup principal negotiated a resolution allowing Brinker to construct this landmark building that continues to give pause to unaware automobile passengers who glimpse its façade high above the roadway.

We believe in you. If you have a vision, we’ll help get you there.

In what is arguably the most hyped New York City dining opening since Mary's Dairy, Danny Meyer's Shake Shack throws open its shutters July 1. Sited in the middle of Madison Square Park, Shake Shack's menu includes burgers, fries and hot dogs, but the star is custard, which was sampled out this weekend (vanilla only) for $1 a scoop. We stopped by for a taste, and can report this: it's custard-riffic! (As for the shack itself, it's reminscent of a Titanium Powerbook; architecture by the legendary James Wines of SITE Architecture, and signage by Pentagram.)
· Dairy Kings [NYMag]
· Shake Shack Announcement Ceremony [nyc.gov]
[inside: more Shake Shack photos!]


Best Products Inc had showrooms across the country, but Houston’s “Indeterminate Façade Showroom” (opening in 1975) was the most famous. “One survey found that photographs of James Wines’s Houston building appeared in more books on 20th century architecture than photographs of any other modern structure,” writes Diebold Essen for Magellen’s Log.

He recalls watching customers walk into to the showroom from a parking lot, “Observation: nobody, not one single customer, looked UP. Nobody paid attention to the building. People drove in, parked, got out, went in, bought, came out, left, with never a glance at the extremely indeterminate facade. Even after all these years, I’m still not sure what to make of that universal indifference to one of the few truly–and intentionally–funny buildings in the world.”
James Wines (1932- ) is an American architect associated with environmental design. Wines is also an architectural and design innovator, a product designer, and an educator. Wines explicitly expresses his own "concern for the Earth." Having written at length on new modes of architecture, design, and planning, he has also provided succinct critique of the status quo in statements like:
The [20th] century began with architects being inspired by an emerging age of industry and technology. Everybody wanted to believe a building could somehow function like a combustion engine. As an inspirational force in 1910, one can understand it. But as a continuing inspiration in our post-industrial world, or our new world of information and ecology, it doesn't make any sense.
--from the film Ecological Design

James Wines graduated from Syracuse University in 1956. He became a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome that year and was bestowed a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1962. Wines founded SITE, Environmental Design[1] in 1970. Wines has been the designer of more than 150 architecture, environmental-art, interior-design, public-space and landscape-architecture projects, including ones sponsored by numerous large corporations (e.g., Swatch, MCA Universal, MTV, Nickelodeon, Williwear, Isuzu, Disney, Costa Coffee, Carrabba's Restaurants, Saporiti Italia, Brinker International, Allsteel, Ranger Italia, Reliance Energy Corporation). His municipal clients have included the cities of Hiroshima, Yokohama, Toyama, Seville, Vienna, Vancouver, Le Puy en Velay, Chattanooga, and New York City. As an educator, Wines originally held adjunct positions at the New School for Social Research (1963-65) and a number of other institutions. In 1974, he taught as an Associate Professor of Fine Art in the New York University Department of Art and Arts Professions. This was followed by visiting professorships at Dartmouth, University of Wisconsin, New Jersey School of Architecture, and Cooper Union Design Center. He was chair of the Environmental Design department at Parsons School of Design from 1984-90. After teaching at Domus Academy in Italy and at the University of Oklahoma, he became a professor of architecture at Pennsylvania State University (1999 to present). Wines has received a number of fellowships and grants including the Fulbright Distinguished Professor Grant to the University of Toronto (2004), National Endowment for the Design Arts — critical writing on architecture (1992).

See also


  • Architecture of Ecology - Architectural Design Profiles 1997
  • Green Architecture 2004


  1. ^ SITE, Environmental Design Official website