Wikipedia article "Niki de Saint Phalle".
舒尔茨·霍夫曼SCHULZ-HOFFMANN\NIKI DE SAINT PHALLE
- 出版时间： 2008-1-1
When Niki de Saint Phalle died, the world lost not only an artist of enormous passion, but also a remarkably creative woman whose work and life were inextricably linked. Throughout her forty-year career Saint Phalle explored female roles in society and myth, basing many of her disquieting and joyful depictions on personal experience.
The full range of Saint Phalle’s oeuvre is paid glorious tribute in this retrospective volume. Chronologically arranged, it takes readers from the visceral and controversial "shooting paintings" and her playfully voluptuous "nanas" to the impressive installations and wonderfully elaborate sculpture gardens such as the Tarot Garden in Tuscany, and the Sun God in San Diego and the Stravinsky Fountain in Paris. In addition to more than two hundred color and black and white photographs of Saint Phalle’s work, the artist’s own comments and sketches are interspersed throughout the book, providing an integral framework for understanding and appreciating her unusual talent.
All—Devouring Mothers—On Niki de Saint Phalle’S Artistic Programme
“…renewing oneself from day tO day
“…the greatest sculptor
Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki by Niki
The Fantastic Paradise
The Bird'S Dream
The Sun God
List of Plates
Niki de Saint Phalle, Sculptor, Is Dead at 71
Niki de Saint Phalle, a Franco-American artist internationally known for her colorful, monumental, cartoonlike sculptures and environments, died on Tuesday in San Diego, Calif. She was 71.
The cause was pulmonary failure after an illness of several months, said Harry Mathews, the writer and her first husband.
A heroine to feminism before the modern movement even emerged, Ms. de Saint Phalle first made her mark in Paris in the early 60's when she was associated with the Nouveaux Réalistes, a group of avant-gardists that included the sculptors Christo, Arman and Jean Tinguely. Their antic, absurdist works challenged conventional ideas about art-making in ways that echoed the earlier Dada movement.
Ms. de Saint Phalle became notorious for what she called ''target paintings,'' at which darts were thrown, and then for actual ''shooting paintings'' and sculptures. In galleries, she would use a .22-caliber rifle to shoot at plaster sculptures in which she had embedded bags of paint, causing color to splatter all over.
Ms. de Saint Phalle went on to produce a far different kind of art, an amalgam of Pop, Surrealism, Folk and outsider art that she prolifically realized in sculptures, paintings, prints and large public installations. Inspired in the mid-60's by a visit from the wife of Larry Rivers, Clarice Rivers, who was then pregnant, Ms. de Saint Phalle created the first of what would become an extensive population of ''Nanas.'' (Nana is a mildly rude French term for woman, comparable to broad.) They were bulbous, archetypal maternal figures like Mexican piñatas painted in bold colors and decorated with crisp, cartoon outlines.
In contrast with the aggressive Conceptualism of her early performance works, the art for which she became best known seemed to flow from an endlessly fertile, visionary imagination.
The Nanas gave birth to legions of fanciful humanoids, animals, plants and monsters and a trend away from the refinement of individual objects toward the creation of whole, fantastic worlds that would be most fully achieved in ambitious public works like Surrealistic amusement parks. Made of cement and produced on a gigantic scale, the Nanas became houses that visitors could enter, and surrounding grounds became teeming, part-organic, part-architectural mazes. At once avant-garde and populist, Ms. de Saint Phalle's art had the unusual ability to appeal to a wide range of viewers, from art-world professionals to children.
In the late 1970's, on acreage in southwestern Tuscany made available by wealthy friends, Ms. de Saint Phalle began her most ambitious project, a sprawling sculpture garden featuring 22 large sculptures based on the fortune-telling Tarot cards. With its wildly grotesque forms decorated by ceramic tiles, glass and mirrors, it calls to mind the architecture of Antonio Gaudí, whose work made a lasting impression on Ms. de Saint Phalle when she first encountered it in the 1950's. Financing it in part through the sale of a perfume called Niki de Saint Phalle, which she created for the Jacqueline Cochran company, Ms. de Saint Phalle worked on the Tarot Garden for 20 years. It opened to the public in 1998.
Catherine Marie-Agnès Fal de Saint Phalle was born into a wealthy family on Oct. 29, 1930, at Neuilly-sur-Seine, a Paris suburb, but was partly raised in New York, where her parents moved after the crash of 1929, and educated at the Brearley School, among several others. She told of being thrown out of Brearley for painting the fig leaves on the school artworks red.
At 18 she eloped with Mr. Mathews, and two years later the couple moved to France, where she began to paint after a nervous breakdown at age 23. She was mostly a self-taught artist. Her first solo exhibition took place in St. Gallen, Switzerland, in 1956, but she did not begin to show her work regularly until 1961.
Divorced from Mr. Mathews in 1960, she began a relationship with Jean Tinguely, the Swiss sculptor known for his kinetic, mechanical sculptures. They were married in 1971 and she collaborated with him on many projects. Although they lived separately after their marriage, their partnership lasted until his death in 1991. Ms. de Saint Phalle returned to the United States in 1994 to settle in La Jolla, in San Diego, partly because of her frail health.
In addition to producing public works in cities from Jerusalem to San Diego, Ms. de Saint Phalle had many museum exhibitions. The Nassau County Museum of Fine Arts in New York assembled her first American retrospective in 1987, and a larger retrospective was organized by the Kunst und Austellunghalle in Bonn in 1992. In 1994, an institution dedicated to her work, the Niki Museum, opened in Nasu, Japan. In 2000 she won a $140,000 Praemium Imperiale Award given by the Japan Art Association.Ms. de Saint Phalle is survived by a brother, John de Saint Phalle, of Florida; a daughter, Laura Duke, of Paris; a son, Philip Mathews, of New York; three grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.
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