用大楼治癌？ Building hope
Can architecture cure cancer? Can buildings make you better? Can space heal? Nah, ’course not. No matter what claims are made for the trade, architecture is only ever the background, the setting for moments in life which may be joyous, momentous, traumatic or tragic. But the idea that architecture can make a difference is as old as civilisation and the newest incarnation of that conception of the power of place and its role in therapy is the remarkable Maggie’s Cancer Caring Centres.
建筑能够医治癌症吗？它能让人身体好转吗？空间能有疗效吗？不能，当然不能。不管把这个行当吹 得有多神，建筑永远只是作陪衬之用，只是记录生活中欢乐、伟大、创伤以及悲情瞬间的场所。但建筑能起到重要作用的理念自文明以来就已有之。建筑有神奇的作 用与疗效，体现这一理念的最新标志就是雄伟壮观的马吉癌症康复中心(Maggie’s Cancer Caring Centres)。
Three new Maggie’s centres, radically different and strikingly conceived, have just opened, and others are on site. One, at Glasgow’s Gartnavel Hospital, is the work of one of architecture’s last remaining intellectuals, Rem Koolhaas and his firm OMA, and looks like a shattered version of a modernist dream of transparency and regularity. The second, in Nottingham, is by the English eccentric Piers Gough, with an interior by Sir Paul Smith, and resembles a novelty teapot. The third, designed by the late Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa, opened in Swansea this week and evokes the swirling forms of a cosmos in formation. Each centre is extraordinary, charming and challenging and they ask difficult questions.
三座新近落成的形态各异、设计新颖的马吉癌症康复中心最近刚刚对外开放，其它的康复中心仍在 建。其中一座位于格拉斯哥的加特纳维尔医疗中心(Glasgow’s Gartnavel Hospital)，是由建筑界现存的几位大师之一的雷姆•库哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)以及其旗下大都会建筑事务所(OMA)设计，碎片式的外形酷似由透明及规则构筑的现代主义梦境。第二座马吉癌症康复中心位于诺丁汉 (Nottingham)，由英国设计怪才皮尔•斯高夫(Piers Gough)设计，外形酷似一把别致的茶壶，室内则由保罗•史密斯爵士(Sir Paul Smith)设计。第三座马吉癌症康复中心由已故日本建筑师黑川纪章(Kisho Kurokawa)设计，本周刚在斯旺西(Swansea)对外开放，其外表让人浮想联翩旋涡状的宇宙。每座康复中心气度不凡、魅力十足、让人过目不忘， 它们提出了很难回答的问题。
The architecture of healing was once placed firmly at the heart of the city. The Greeks established a magical city of culture and cure at Epidaurus, a site that set theatre, dream cures and sports against a dramatic coastal landscape. Medieval builders created monastery complexes that embraced vineyards, almshouses, hostels and hospitals (hostel, hospital and hotel share the same etymological root), including the Hospices de Beaune in Burgundy, from where some of the finest wine still flows (then, as now, red wine was regarded as healthy stuff). The Enlightenment produced its own monumental hospitals, such as Les Invalides in Paris and Christopher Wren’s Royal Hospitals in Chelsea and Greenwich.
过去的康复中心一直牢牢占据城市中心。希腊人在厄庇道鲁斯(Epidaurus)建起了一座集 文化与治病于一体的瑰丽城市，背靠着迷人海滩，他们建起了剧院、理想的疗所以及运动场所。中世纪的建筑师则围着葡萄园、养老院、客栈以及医院（客栈、医院 以及旅馆的词根相同）修建了修道院群，包括法国勃艮第的伯恩济贫院(Hospices de Beaune in Burgundy)，此处酿出的极品葡萄酒至今飘香（与如今一样，红酒当时也被认为是有益于身体健康）。启蒙时代(The Enlightenment)也修建了不朽的标志性医院，如巴黎荣军院(Les Invalides)以及由克里斯托弗•雷恩爵士(Christopher Wren)所建、位于伦敦切尔西(Chelsea)与格林尼治(Greenwich)的皇家老残军人疗养院(Royal Hospitals)。
But something went wrong. Hospitals got more grim and bleak, conflated with workhouses and prisons. In the 20th century, the sanatorium emerged as an archetype of modernity, from Thomas Mann’s The Magic Mountain to Alvar Aalto’s Paimio Sanatorium. It became the symbol of the purging of an old world via the fresh, cool air and light of a crystalline contemporaneity. The magic mountain quickly descended into the medical machine, the hospital as a massive, inhuman mechanism, a place to process patients. And that is what Maggie’s were reacting to. The hospital is a vast ecosystem of technologies and processes. But as a charity concerned with the well-being of cancer patients and their families – as opposed to medical processes – they can afford to think about architecture and atmosphere.
但经似乎有点念歪了，集救济所及监狱于一身的医院越发变得阴森与凄凉。20世纪，从托马斯•曼 (Thomas Mann)的《魔山》(The Magic Mountain)到阿尔瓦•阿尔托(Alvar Aalto)的拜米欧疗养院(Paimio Sanatorium)，作为现代社会标志的疗养院横空出世。疗养院充斥着新鲜清凉的空气以及属于那个时代的明媚阳光，成为了彻底告别旧世界的标志。但魔 山很快异化为纯粹的治病机器，一座规模宏大、没有人情味的机构，一个按部就班给病人治病的地方。这也正是马吉癌症康复中心缘何运运而生的原因。康复中心就 象一座大型生态系统，集各种科技与治疗于一身。但作为关注癌症病人以及病人家人福祉的慈善机构——与按部就班给病人治病截然不同——马吉癌症康复中心有足 够的底气去思索建筑及其所营造的氛围对治疗的效果。
The centres were instigated by Maggie Jencks and have been built into an architectural and medical exemplar by her widower, the architectural writer Charles Jencks. The aim has been to challenge a kind of architecture of inoffensiveness, which has defined the construction of buildings for traumatic situations for decades. Whether it’s a care home or a crematorium, a hospital or a hospice, the default architecture throughout the western world has been an anodyne vernacular moderne. These are then placed in suburban landscapes of golfing aesthetics – neutered nature.
马吉癌症康复中心由马吉•詹克斯(Maggie Jencks)发起成立，并由其鳏夫、建筑师查尔斯•詹克斯(Charles Jencks)把它建成建筑学与医疗机构的典范，旨在挑战医疗机构那种不事张扬的建筑风格，而这种建筑风格几十年来成了建造医疗机构的固定模式。不管是康 复中心、火葬场、医院还是收容所，这些不事张扬的建筑一直就是现代西方各国解除病人痛苦的场所，因而它们都是建在市郊，自然环境可以与高尔夫球场的风景相 提并论。
The Maggie’s centres bring architecture back into the foreground; strident, stylised mini-cultural buildings that respond not to anaesthetised modernity but to the explosion of expressive postmodernity. Some of architecture’s most sculptural protagonists have built centres; Frank Gehry in Dundee; Zaha Hadid in Fife; Lord Richard Rogers in London; Sir Richard MacCormac in Cheltenham.
马吉康复中心使建筑重新成为主角；这些时尚张扬的微型文化建筑对应的不是麻木不仁的现代社会， 而是后现代社会个性张扬的集中爆发。一些建筑界最富才华的雕塑大师（如弗兰克•盖里(Frank Gehry)在邓迪(Dundee)、扎哈•哈迪德(Zaha Hadid)在法夫(Fife)、理查德•罗杰斯勋爵(Lord Richard Rogers)在伦敦以及理查德•麦克科马克(Richard MacCormac)在切尔腾纳姆(Cheltenham)）设计建造了很多类似的康复中心。
Jencks has a compelling metaphor for the success of the centres. He dismisses any idea of an architecture of healing but he does introduce the intriguing analogy of the placebo. These buildings and gardens might, he suggests, exert some effect not clinically but psychologically, and the placebo effect is measurably real. A 2006 study by the Lighthouse Architecture Centre of patients at Frank Gehry’s Maggie’s centre in Dundee found that the longer patients had spent in the centre, the more positively they viewed their quality of life. It was found that their ability to make small changes in their environment – moving furniture around, opening a window – had a disproportionate impact. It was that control they had been stripped of in the institution.
对于这类康复中心的成功，詹克斯自有颇为形象的比喻。他对建筑有疗效的观点嗤之以鼻，但的确提 出了建筑就是慰藉剂的形象类比。他暗示，这些建筑与花园或许有一定疗效，但并非是临床作用，而是心理慰藉，而且据测，这种慰藉效果是真实存在的。2006 年，在弗兰克•盖里设计的邓迪市马吉康复中心，Lighthouse Architecture Centre进行的研究发现：病人在康复中心呆的时间越久，就越能积极看待自己的生活质量。研究还表明他们对居住环境的微小改动——挪动家具、打开窗户 ——都会有着超乎寻常的效果。而在一般医疗机构中，病人对居住环境的控制权却被剥夺了。
Indeed, beyond the dramatic architecture the most interesting thing about the centres is this domesticity, an idea of being at home. Each centre is built around a kitchen table, the informal forum for conversation, encouraging patients to make a cup of tea for themselves – the wider philosophy is one of helping yourself within a framework of support. The rooms are familiar in scale, the furniture is comfortable rather than the kind of theatrical stuff architects favour. There are no corridors or flickering fluorescent strip lights. Some spaces encourage chat, others allow patients to withdraw with a book, there are nooks, corners and, always, views out to the gardens.
没错，除了宏伟壮观的建筑外，康复中心最吸引人的正是它的家庭式生活，即居家生活的理念。每座 中心都围着餐桌而建，此处是非正式谈话的场所，鼓励病人自己动手泡茶——更深的寓意是在总体受助的框架内，让病人尽可能自立。房间的大小合适，放置家具给 人以温馨感，而非建筑师喜欢的那种剧院风格。康复中心没有走廊，也没有声控式条状荧光照明灯，有些区域鼓励病人闲聊天，有些区域允许病人带着书到隐秘及偏 僻的地方去看，但病人至始至终能看到花园。
Jencks, a landscape designer whose works include the extraordinary gardens at Jupiter Artland near Edinburgh and his extensive grounds at Portrack House in Holywood, imbues the gardens with a sense of cosmic order, of the curious correlations between cosmos, creation and cancer.
詹克斯是位园林设计师，作品包括位于爱丁堡附近Jupiter Artland美伦美奂的花园，以及位于霍利伍德(Holywood)Portrack House的规模宏大的庭院，他赋予花园某种宇宙秩序的理念，使宇宙、万物生灵以及癌症之间存在着某种奇怪的关联。
The landscape at Gartnavel was designed with Maggie by his daughter Lily Jencks, who created a courtyard garden of elegant beauty amid the harsh landscape of the hospital. A centre under construction at Oxford by architect Chris Wilkinson is a tree house, elevated on stilts so that it sits in the wood at the level of the leaves. The centre in Nottingham looks oddly like a face, its four green-tile-clad oval planes presenting a friendly if eccentric façade. Paul Smith’s interior brings his quirky version of Englishness, with floral-clad chairs, vintage lights and specially designed mugs.
加特纳维尔医疗中心的马吉癌症康复中心由马吉与女儿莉莉•詹克斯(Lily Jencks)联袂设计，在缺乏人情味的医院环境中，他们营造了一座别致的庭院式花园。在建的牛津康复中心由建筑师克里斯•维尔金森(Chris Wilkinson)设计，这是一座树屋，坐落于丛林树巅的高脚屋中。诺丁汉康复中心则形似一张怪异的脸谱，四面贴着绿瓦的椭圆形平面呈现的是一副友善的 面孔（有人说它怪异）。保罗•史密斯的内部设计（鲜花装点的椅子，古式灯饰以及专门设计的马克杯）呈现的则是诡诈版的英国人性格。
These elements create a sense of place. It is this establishment of the Maggie’s centres as particular places, not placeless institutions, that makes them such a critical intervention into the bland lands of PFI-era hospital architecture. These are spaces that make people feel better – which is not the same thing as making them better. They also have a huge impact on the staff who work amid astonishing architecture, feeling they are part of something that is valued, and they communicate that optimism to patients. There is a lesson here for all workplaces.
这些元素营造出某种方位感，正是把马吉康复中心营造成有特殊方位感的地方（而不是没有方位 感），才使得它们成为摆脱“民间主动融资”(PFI)时代医院建筑单调乏味氛围的革命性力量。困在这些地方会让病人感觉更棒（这与让病人病情更好不是一回 事），而且它们也会对在这种标新立异建筑中工作的员工产生巨大影响，他们觉得自己是崇高事业的一分子，而且能把这种乐观情绪传递给病人，希望所有的医疗机 构都可以从中借鉴一二。
Maggie’s has also reintroduced an idea of a correspondence between health and the city. With a tendency to displace hospitals from the city and marginalise them, illness becomes symbolically forgotten, exiled. Yet, as we live longer lives, more of us will live with cancer and it will become a chronic condition rather than the death sentence it can still be perceived as.
These are striking buildings that provoke reactions in their reflections on the cosmos, the house of healing and the city. The house used to be the place where we were born, where we fell sick and where we died. Now those momentous events have been institutionalised and the house has become a more neutral container, an asset. The Maggie’s centres offer a chance to re-evaluate the role that architecture can play in the everyday and the extraordinary. It would be as radical a change as they are sparking in healthcare.
这些别致的康复中心引发了人们对宇宙，治疗机构以及城市本身的反思。房子过去是人类生老病死的 场所。如今，这些人生大事都俨然由各种机构代劳了，房子则成为更为中性化的载体，变成了有价资产。马吉康复中心提供了这样的机会：重新评估建筑在日常生活 以及非常情形中的作用。正如它催生了康复观念的根本变化，这个变化本身也是革命性的。
Edwin Heathcote is the FT’s architecture critic