導演：阿米爾.穆拉托維切 （Amir Muratovic）
2006, 紀錄片, 片長 81分鐘
cture in Slovenia was introduced by Max Fabiani, and in the mid-war period, Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik. In the second half of the 20th century, the national and universal style were merged by the architects Edvard Ravnikar and Marko Mušič, Vojteh Ravnikar, Jurij Kobe and groups of younger architects.
Jože Plečnik ( pronunciation (help·info)) (23 January 1872 – 7 January 1957) was a Slovene architect who had a strong impact on the modern identity of the city of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, most notably by designing the iconic Triple Bridge and the Slovene National and University Library building, as well as banks along the Ljubljanica River, the Ljubljana open market buildings, the Ljubljana cemetery, parks, plazas etc. The impact he had on Ljubljana has been compared to the impact Antonio Gaudi had on Barcelona.
His style is associated with the Vienna Secession style of architecture (a type of Art Nouveau). Besides in Ljubljana, he worked in Vienna, Belgrade and on the Prague Castle. He influenced the avant-garde Czech Cubism. He is also a founding member of the Ljubljana School of Architecture, joining it upon an invitation by Ivan Vurnik, another notable Ljubljana architect.
LifePlečnik was born in Ljubljana, Carniola, Austria-Hungary, present-day Slovenia. He studied with noted Viennese architect and educator Otto Wagner and worked in Wagner's architecture office until 1900.
WorkFrom 1900 through 1910, while practicing in the Wagner's office in Vienna, he designed the Langer House (1900) and the Zacherlhaus (1903–1905).
His 1910–1913 Church of the Holy Spirit (Heilig-Geist-Kirche) is remarkable for its innovative use of poured-in-place concrete as both structure and exterior surface, and also for its abstracted classical form language. Most radical is the church's crypt, with its slender concrete columns and angular, cubist capitals and bases.
In 1911, Plečnik moved to Prague, where he taught at the college of arts and crafts. The Czech President at the time, Tomáš Masaryk, appointed Plečnik chief architect for the 1920 renovation of the Prague Castle. From 1920 until 1934 Plečnik completed numerous projects at the castle, including renovation of numerous gardens and courtyards, the design and installation of monuments and sculptures, and the design of numerous new interior spaces, including the Plečnik Hall completed in 1930, which features three levels of abstracted Doric colonnades.
Upon the 1921 establishment of the Ljubljana School of Architecture in his hometown of Ljubljana, he was invited by the fellow Slovene architect Ivan Vurnik to become one of its first faculty and moved to teach architecture at the University of Ljubljana. Plečnik would remain in Ljubljana until his death, and it is there that his influence as an architect is most noticeable.
Giving the city of Ljubljana its modern identityPlečnik gave the capital of Slovenia, the city of Ljubljana, its modern identity by designing iconic buildings such as the Slovene National and University Library building. He also designed other notable buildings, including the Vzajemna Insurance Company Offices, and contributed to many civic improvements. He renovated the city's bridges and the Ljubljanica River banks, and designed the Ljubljana open market buildings, the Ljubljana cemetery, parks, plazas etc. Buildings designed by Plečnik were built by the constructor Matko Curk.
During the Communist period of Slovene history Plečnik fell out of favor as a Catholic and his teaching role at the university was gradually reduced. He received fewer commissions, although he did complete some smaller monuments, fountains and church renovations in the 1950s. Plečnik died in 1957 and received an official state funeral in Žale.
LegacyIn the 1980s, with postmodernist interest in Plečnik's work, the general interest in him has been revived, as well, after being forgotten during the 1960s and 1970s. Since then, Plečnik's legacy has been commemorated in various ways, most notably in 1990s on the Slovene 500 tolar banknote, with the National and University Library of Slovenia depicted on the reverse.
The unrealized Cathedral of Freedom designed by Plečnik is featured on the Slovene 10 cent euro coin.  Slovenska akropola is the title of an 1987 album by Slovene industrial music group Laibach. During August 2008, a maquette of the Parliament was featured at the Project Plečnik exhibition on the architect's life, held at the Council of the European Union building in Brussels, Belgium on the occasion of the Slovene EU Presidency. The exhibition's curator Boris Podrecca described the Parliament as "the most charismatic object" of Plečnik's opus.
In addition, on 23rd January 2012, to celebrate the 140th anniversary of Plečnik's birth, a picture of the Triple Bridge was featured as the official Google logo (Doodle) adaptation in Slovenia.
- Jože Plečnik was for Ljubljana what Antonio Gaudi was for Barcelona (In Slovene: "Jože Plečnik za Ljubljano tisto, kar je bil za Barcelono Antonio Gaudi"), MMC RTV Slovenia, 23 January 2012
- Kobilica, Katarina; Studen, Andrej (1999). Volja do dela je bogastvo: mikrozgodovinska študija o ljubljanskem stavbnem podjetniku Matku Curku (1885-1953) in njegovi družini [The Will to Work Is a Fortune: A Microhistorical Study About the Ljubljana Construction Businessman Matko Curk (1885–1953)]. Korenine (in Slovene). Nova revija. ISBN 961-6017-78-0.
- Triera.com: Podreccova slovenska trilogija v Bruslju (Slovene)
- Prelovšek, Damjan. (1992) Jože Plečnik: 1872-1957: Architectura perennis. Salzburg. Residenz verlag. Published in English version in 1997 by Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06953-7
- Margolius, Ivan. (1995) "Jože Plečnik: Church of the Sacred Heart." Architecture in Detail series. London. Phaidon Press.
- Krečič, Peter. (1993) "Plečnik, the complete works." New York. Whitney Library of Design. ISBB 0-8230-2565-9
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jože Plečnik.|
Max Fabiani, Slovene Maks, Italian Maximilian (29 April 1865 – 18 August 1962) was a cosmopolitan trilingual Italian-Austrian-Slovenian architect with Friulan and Tyrolean[disambiguation needed] ancestry, born in the village of Kobdilj near Štanjel on the Kras plateau, province of Gorizia and Gradisca, present-day Slovenia. Together with Ciril Metod Koch, he introduced the Vienna Secession style of architecture (a type of Art Nouveau) in the Slovenia.
LifeFabiani was born to father Antonio Fabiani, a Friulian latifondist from Paularo of Bergamasque ancestry, and mother Charlotte von Kofler, a Triestine aristocrat of Tyrolean origin. He grew up in a cosmopolitan trilingual environment: besides Italian, the language of his family, and Slovene, the language of his social environment, he learned German at a very young age.
His was a wealthy family which could afford to provide a good education for the children. He attended elementary school in Kobdilj in his father's house, and the German language Realschule in Ljubljana, then moved to Vienna, where he attended architecture courses at the Vienna University of Technology. After earning his diploma in 1889, a scholarship enabled him to travel for three years (1892–1894) to Asia Minor and through most of Europe.
WorkOtto Wagner on Wagner's personal invitation, and stayed there until the end of the century. During this period he did not only concentrate his interests on design, but also cultivated his vocation as town planner and passionately devoted himself to teaching.
Fabiani's first large-scale architectural project was the urban plan for the Carniolan capital Ljubljana, which was badly damaged by an earthquake in 1895. Fabiani won a competition against the historicist architect Camillo Sitte, and was chosen by the Ljubljana Town Council as the main urban planner. One of the reasons for this choice was Fabiani was considered by the Slovene Liberal Nationalists as a Slovene.
With the personal sponsorship of the Liberal nationalist mayor of Ljubljana Ivan Hribar, Fabiani designed several important buildings in the Carniolan capital, including the Mladika palace, which is now the seat of the Slovenian Foreign Ministry.
His work in Ljubljana helped him to become well known in the Slovenia, convincing Slovene nationalists in the Austrian Littoral to entrust him with the design for the National Halls in Gorizia (1903) and in Trieste (1904).
Fabiani also created the urban plan for Bielsko in Poland. In 1902, these two urban plans won him the first honorary masters degree in the field of urban planning by the University of Vienna in Austria-Hungary.
In 1917, he was named professor at the University of Vienna, and in 1919 one of his pupils, Ivan Vurnik, offered him a teaching position at the newly established University of Ljubljana, Fabiani however refused the offer, quit the teaching position in Vienna, and decided to settle in Gorizia, which had been annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, thus becoming an Italian citizen. During the 1920s, he coordinated a large scale reconstruction of historical monuments in the areas in the Julian March that had been devastated by the Battles of the Isonzo during World War I.
In late 1935, he accepted the nomination for mayor (podestà) of his native Štanjel by the Fascist regime, for the National Fascist Party. He remained mayor during World War II, using his knowledge of German language and his cultural acquaintances to convince the German troops to spare the village from destruction. He also maintained communication with local Slovene partisans. Nevertheless, the monumental fortifications part of the village, which he himself had renovated during the 1930s, were eventually destroyed in the fight between the Wehrmacht and the Slovene partisans.
In 1944, Fabiani relocated back to Gorizia where he lived until his death.
Notable worksThe most notable works designed by Fabiani include:
- Mladika Palace (Ljubljana, 1896),
- Palace Portois & Fix (Vienna, 1898),
- Palace Artaria (Vienna, 1900),
- Palace Urania (Vienna) (1902),
- the Revenue Office building (Gorizia, 1903),
- the National Hall in Trieste (1904),
- Prešeren Square and the Prešeren Monument (Ljubljana; unveiled in 1905),
- Stabile Palace (Trieste, 1906)
- the urban development plan for Ljubljana (1895),
- Villa Wechsler Vienna (1911)
- San Germano church (Brijuni, 1912)
- the plan for the reconstruction of Gorizia (1921)
- the general urban development plan for Venice (1952).
- Restoration of Gorizia duom, Gorizia (1919)
- The general urban development plan of Monfalcone, Italia (1919)
- Villa Bigot (Gorizia, 1921)
- Pellegrini's home in Gorizia (1922)
- Felberbaum's home in Gorizia (1925)
- San Giorgio church (Lucinico, 1927)
- Ferrari's garden (Štanjel, 1930–40)
- Sacro Cuore metropolitan church (Gorizia, 1934)
- "Tower of memory", memorial to the Italian soldiers who died in World War I (Gorizia, 1937)
- Casa del Fascio (House of Fascism) (Štanjel, 1938)
- Italian Order of Merit for Culture and Art - Rome, 10 September 1951.