描繪巴黎紅磨坊浮世印象的法國畫家羅特列克 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Toulouse-Lautrec : Les Lumieres De La Nuit
阿爾比聖塞西爾大教堂（Cathedrale Sainte－Cecile d"Albi）的蔭影下
博斯克（Bose）府第，座落在離紅磚大教堂幾步路遠的地方。1864年11月24日，亨利．馬利．雷蒙．德．土魯斯—羅特列克－蒙法（Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse－Lautrec－Monfa）出生在這幢房子裡。父親是阿爾方斯．德．土魯斯－羅特列克，母親是阿黛爾（Adele）伯爵夫人，娘家姓塔比埃．德．塞萊朗（Tapie de Celeyran）。父母原是表兄妹。羅特列克和塔比埃兩家有過多次聯姻，根據某些醫學上的推測，亨利這孩子生來體弱多病，身罹殘疾，可能與近親結婚有關。亨利家是法國西南著名的土魯斯伯爵的直系後裔，這個家族從750年到1271年間統治阿爾比地區。家族的一位祖先博杜安（Baudouin）伯爵，1196年娶了德．羅特列克女爵暨蒙法領邑的女繼承人阿麗克斯（Alix）為妻。從這時起，羅特列克和蒙法，就跟土魯斯家族的姓氏聯結在一起了。
亨利和母親非常親近，跟她長期通信，由信中可看出兩人的默契佳，關係很親密。他早期有一幅重要作品，可能完成於1881年，畫的就是阿黛爾伯爵夫人坐在餐廳裡，面前放著一杯茶。羅特列克採用非常明亮的色彩，筆觸生動，畫風類似法國畫家馬內（Edouard Manet） 或莫里佐（Berthe Morisot）。其實，他還沒有學過畫畫。
普林斯多在聖奧諾萊市郊街（Faubourg－SaintHonore）233號的一家畫室工作，那裡可以遇到擅畫賽馬場和市洛涅（Boulogne）森林風景的畫家，如法國畫家佛倫（Jean Louis Forain）。儘管父親的態度非常勉強，但是得到了夏爾（Charles）叔叔的支持，羅特列克決心追求藝術。普林斯多把他介紹給法國畫家博納（Leon Bonnat）。1882年3月，他投入博納門下，學習繪畫和素描，使用當時美術學生的標準課本。
博納與另兩位法國畫家杰羅姆（Jean Leon Gerome）和牟侯（Gustave Moreau）開設的畫室，當時聲譽卓著。在這兩個畫室執教的，是戴上各種桂冠的大師，來聽課的學生，則個個夢想榮膺沙龍金獎或羅馬大獎。羅特列克想跟法國肖像畫家卡洛呂－杜蘭（Carolus Duran）學，但是普林斯多屬意他向得到共和國榮譽勳章的博納大師學習。博納代表了羅特列克日後憎恨的一切，而羅特列克死後，博納千方百計阻撓，不讓他的作品納入國家收藏……，博納的批評向來不留情面，他對這位學生說：「你畫得不錯，技巧嫻熟，大體來說不錯，但你的素描不堪人目。」
那年年底，博納受聘為美術學院教授，關閉了畫室。科爾蒙（Femand Cormon）應博納的學生要求，在克里希（Clichy）大道104號開了一家畫室，亨利轉到那兒學習。科爾蒙那時是知名的歷史畫家，擅畫《聖經》故事和原始社會場景。他的巨作《該隱攜家潛逃》，掛在慮森堡博物館內的絕佳位置上。在科爾蒙畫室，羅特列克常來往的朋友，是年輕的法國畫家貝爾納（Emile Bernard），以及在博納畫室認識的土魯斯藝術家戈吉（Francois Gauzi）。戈吉在1954年出版的回憶錄《羅特列克和他的時代》中，花了不少篇幅描寫羅特列克，他的見證是研究羅特列克的主要資料。
臨摹夏瓦納（Puvis de Chavannes） 的戲謔之作
羅特列克花了兩個下午，臨摹夏瓦納的作品，內容略有改動，猶如音樂的滑稽模仿作。那時，德裔法國作曲家奧芬巴赫（Jacques Bach）的滑稽歌劇中常有這樣的處理。羅特列克強調模特兒的靜態，使用大塊而均勻的顏色。他的作品與原作有下列不同之處：抹去了辯才繆斯和歷史繆斯，白浪子代替悲劇繆斯；浪子面對畫架坐著；畫架上放著德國畫家馬克（August Macke）和法國畫家梅森尼葉（Ernest Meissonnier）的畫，都有署名。畫面上添加了現代人物，還暗示自己也在其中，甚至有一個日本人！羅特列克表現出自己是怎麼樣一個人：他承襲夏瓦納畫中好的一面，但是加上一種破壞性的幽默感，增添了原作與「改編」之間的距離感。
同時，羅特列克跟科爾蒙畫室的一位同學格勒尼埃（Rene Grenier），一同遷到封丹路19號B；法國畫家竇加（Edgar Degas）也在這條街上開了一間畫室。兩人比鄰，正好說明竇加這位專畫跳舞女郎的畫家，在取材和取景方面對羅特列克的影響。比如說，竇加取材自費南多（Fernando）馬戲團，創作了著名的《洛拉小姐》，畫中她用牙齒咬住高懸空中的吊環；羅特列克則畫該馬戲團裡的女騎師。日本的版畫技術、飄逸的線條所創造的縱深感，以及近景人物的特殊取景角度等方法，竇加用來得心應手，而在羅特列克筆下也很引人注目。
志同道合的朋友，謙虛的藝術態度那時，羅特列克和拉索（Henri Rachou）、格勒尼埃、阿爾貝（Adolphe Albert）、戈吉和昂克坦（Louis Anquetin）等畫家，組成一個朋友會。他開始發現巴黎這個大熔爐的樂趣和誘惑，發現了從大馬路到北部蒙馬特（Montmartre）區之間，燈紅酒綠的娛樂區。他以極為謙虛的態度看待自己的藝術，執著地跟科爾蒙學了六年。儘管他曾說科爾蒙是「巴黎最醜最瘦的人」。羅特列克很謹慎地為了封信給祖母說：「我決不是在更新法國藝術。我是在一張可憐的白紙上折騰，這張紙對我無所表示，還請相信，我在上面也描不出什麼像樣的東西。」
****Welcome to the Moulin Rouge. Not the hyper, adult-attention-deficit-
Lautrec devoted a majority of his time to painting both seedy and serene aspects of French nightlife, capturing moments of decadent exuberance as well as quiet solitude.
Though his work makes up the bulk of the exhibit, that doesn't mean Lautrec was the quintessential chronicler of Parisian dance halls, nightclubs and brothels that made up the belle epoque period of French life in the late 19th century.
"Lautrec captured what it felt like to be in the dance halls and nightclubs as opposed to what Montmarte looked like," says curator Douglas Druick. "You don't get a sense of the excitement of the era looking at a photograph, but you do when looking at his works."
"What's fabulous about Lautrec is he observed and interpreted it, so we're seeing it through this particular person's eyes," adds Mary Weaver Chapin, a co-author of the catalog accompanying the exhibit, and a former Andrew W. Mellon curatorial fellow at the Art Institute. "He is not just a chronicler of the scene."
Nor was he the only one on the scene. Though Lautrec is perhaps the most familiar artist to draw subject matter from both the highbrow and lowbrow places of entertainment in and around Montmartre, he was joined by the likes of Theophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and several other artists who flocked to the neighborhood north of the city center of Paris between 1885 and 1904.
"All around the rest of Paris, sections of the city were being razed so the wide boulevards we've come to know could be put in," Chapin says. "Montmartre was untouched, and remained a low-rent district popular with anarchists, Communards, students and artists."
And it was probably the last place you'd expect to find someone of Lautrec's class.
A privileged upbringing
Henri Marie-Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa was born in 1864 in the south of France to an aristocratic family who owned much of the area.
Growing up, he was always in fragile health, which some have attributed to inbreeding (his parents were first cousins, and many of Lautrec's own cousins suffered similar ailments).
As a teen, Lautrec broke both of his legs within a two-year period. Neither leg ever knitted properly -- possibly due to a congenital defect -- and his legs stopped growing. The rest of his body continued to develop. He eventually reached 4 feet 11 inches in height.
"He also had a lisp and spoke French with a strong southern accent," Chapin says. "He rarely made a great first impression."
He buffered his rather awkward physical appearance by eccentric characteristics, but he wasn't the only eccentric in his family.
"His father and his grandfathers were also pretty out there," Chapin says. "This was a time when the rich could get away with anything."
His family had no problems accepting outlandish behavior. His choice of career was another matter.
Artist as rebel
An 18-year-old Lautrec arrived in Paris in 1882 to pursue his art studies. Like many students, he was hardly all work and no play. And he seemed to enjoy either provoking his family or at least flaunting his bohemian lifestyle to his family back home.
"There's one extra-charming letter in particular where he writes, 'Dear Mom, I've been hanging out in this club with these anarchists,'" Chapin says, chuckling.
Still, there was one thing worse than hanging out in cafes and bars with malcontents, and that was simply the fact that Lautrec was hellbent on making a living as an artist.
"He was from a family of aristocrats," Chapin explains. "Working for a living was viewed as something below his class."
His family even asked him to paint under a pseudonym and, for a time, he did. He used a variety of names, most notably "Treclau" -- an anagram for Lautrec.
Hanging out in places like Le Chat Noir (The Black Cat) and the Moulin Rouge proved proved to be a good thing for Lautrec, because it was those places that helped skyrocket him to fame.
Art for the masses
Lautrec's first foray into lithography -- an art form in which he would demonstrate a talent for innovation -- occurred in December 1891. Though he had spent nine years in Paris, he literally became an overnight sensation when 3,000 copies of his publicity poster "Moulin Rouge: La Goulue" were plastered all over Paris.
"You can't really imagine the kind of notoriety he gained," Chapin says. "Three thousand posters going up in one night was mass communication."
And Parisians weren't just looking at his posters. They were carefully tearing them down and taking them home. While he wasn't the first person to legitimize the poster medium (Jules Cheret is given that credit), Lautrec was the first avant-garde artist to try his hand at poster-making.
"He took a very modern approach to the medium," Chapin says. "This was cutting-edge art applied to lowbrow entertainment."
He found success in the medium in part because he had an uncanny ability to boil down a performer's essence to a few iconic characteristics. In cancan dancer Louise "La Goulue" Weber's case, her squinty eyes, penchant for high kicks and her whirling petticoat tell you all you need to know about her nightly performances.
For the cabaret singer Yvette Guilbert, her character was reduced to thin woman with black gloves and a nose like a beak. Singer-songwriter Aristide Bruant's image was distilled to a wide-brimmed hat, black cloak, red scarf and walking stick.
"Lautrec was also very savvy," Chapin says. "The reason these posters survive is because Lautrec would save very good proofs to sell to collectors or through vendors. He would hang and sell them right next to his oil paintings so you would have art right next to something that was mass-produced. He was the first artist to paint the celebrity as we understand the notion today."
And in the process, he managed to create his own celebrity.
"His life reads like a movie script," Chapin says. "His parents were cousins, he was born with a deformity and he gained artistic acclaim before dying at an early age. Beyond that, there is also his art that resonates with his own fascination with celebrity and nightlife. In short, it's great material to work with."
Pop culture pays homage to Lautrec
While the Art Institute's exhibit goes to great lengths to recreate the cultural aspects of life in Montmartre neighborhood of Paris at the end of the 19th century, it's still lacking a certain joie de vivre. To get the full Toulouse-Lautrec experience, may we suggest:
DRINK LIKE LAUTREC
As you may know, absinthe -- one of the liquors popular to many bohemians like Lautrec as well as writers, singers and 19th-century Parisians -- has been banned in the United States since 1915 thanks to the hallucinogenic qualities of one of the chief botanical ingredients: wormwood. Wormwood contains a chemical called thujone, thought to be psychoactive.
Those seeking to dance with "The Green Fairy" (so named because when absinthe is mixed with water, the resulting mixture turns an opaque green) needn't break the law to quench their thirst. Absente (or, as the French call it "petite absinthe") is legal and available for purchase in the States (Binny's Beverage Depot has a 750-milliliter bottle for $39.99). Absente is made from a less-bitter cousin herb called southern wormwood. The level of thujone in southern wormwood is at Food and Drug Administration-permitted levels, making Absente perfectly legal.
That doesn't mean the drink is any less potent, says Jim Nikola of Crillon Importers, the U.S. distributor of Absente.
"This is as close to illegal absinthe as you can get without it being illegal," Nikola says. "It's still pretty strong."
The traditional method of serving the drink requires placing a sugar cube on a specially shaped, slotted absinthe spoon. You balance the spoon on a glass filled with 2 ounces of Absente and pour 3.5 ounces of cold water over the sugar cube, then stir with the absinthe spoon.
Of course, if you're leery of investing in a full bottle, Nikola says you can always try Absente at the Absinthe Cafe (1958 W. North), Delilah's (2771 N. Lincoln) and the Ritz-Carlton (160 E. Pearson).
Lautrec wasn't just a big fan of this traditional drink, though.
"He had a strong predilection for all alcohol," says exhibit curator Mary Weaver Chapin. "He was also fiercely fond of American-style cocktails."
One of the recipes Chapin came across in her research was for an absinthe cocktail he created called "The Earthquake." Mix equal parts of Absente with cognac and pour over lots of ice.
"'Earthquake' was a perfect name for it," Nikola says. "The drink is so strong, it may certainly create tremors through your body."
ENTERTAIN LIKE LAUTREC
Cabaret as an art form is alive and well in Chicago. While there are notable differences between French and American-style cabaret, you'll still feel like Lautrec sitting at a cocktail table at Davenport's (1383 N. Milwaukee), or Gentry (440 N. State and 3320 N. Halsted) -- especially if you bring your sketch pad and charcoals.
The larger-than-life artist was the main character in John Huston's 1952 film "Moulin Rouge." Jose Ferrer received an Oscar nomination for his portrayal of the artist. Zsa Zsa Gabor starred opposite him as French performer (and frequent Lautrec model) Jane Avril.
Lautrec also turned up briefly in Vincente Minnelli's 1956 Vincent van Gogh bio-pic, "Lust For Life"; (Jerry Bergan played Lautrec). More recently, John Leguizamo played the artist in Baz Luhrmann's 2001 romantic musical, "Moulin Rouge!" that set modern pop tunes in the belle epoque era.
Lautrec's art has been a frequent source of inspiration for animators and costume designers. For Gene Kelly's classic 1951 film "An American in Paris," costume designer Irene Sharaff created costumes for each of the film's ballet sequences around artists like Manet, van Gogh and Lautrec, winning an Oscar for best costumes for her efforts.
Legendary animator Chuck Jones drew inspiration from van Gogh, Monet and Lautrec for backgrounds in the 1962 animated film "Gay Purr-ee," which starred the voice of Judy Garland and featured music by Yip Harburg and Harold Arlen.
There's even a science fiction connection. Lautrec's poster of Aristide Bruant (see image on previous page) with long scarf and wide-brimmed hat, was the inspiration for the costume worn by Tom Baker as the BBC's fourth "Doctor Who."
British Museum 新增了 2 張相片。
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was born #onthisday in 1864. The French painter and printmaker is famous for his depictions of the glamour and excess of Paris in the late 19th century.
The Artist's Dog Flèche - National Gallery of Art
https://www.nga.gov/Collection/art-object-page.52228.html d'Anselme and Tapié de Céléyran are according to labels on back of painting. The latter was a cousin of the artist, whose mother was Adèle Tapié de Céléyran.  Exhibited with Molyneux collection in 1952.