- 般若三藏，9世紀健馱邏佛教僧人，中唐時到中國翻譯華嚴經、大乘理趣六波羅密多經 和大乘本生心地觀經等佛經。
- [ 翻譯此頁 ]The Gandharan city of Taxila was an important Buddhist centre of .... Gandharan art flourished and produced some of the best pieces of Indian sculpture. ...
The current state of research on Gandharan art
Head of a Buddha (Ryukoku)
Editor's Note: The following articles are translations of reviews carried by the latest issue of Kokka, a prestigious art magazine published in Japan. The publication, which specializes in old Japanese and Oriental art, was founded in 1889 by Tenshin Okakura, a well-known Japanese art critic and philosopher (1862-1913), among others. It is held in high esteem by researchers and experts aboard.
By AKIRA MIYAJI
Major changes have occurred in the study of Gandharan art since 1980 as dizzying amounts of activity have taken place in the field. Numerous symposia have been held, research reports published, and exhibitions held. For example, the Gandharan Art and Bamiyan Site exhibition, organized by the author, was held from 2007 through 2008 at the Shizuoka Prefectural Museum of Art and other sites.
The exhibition Gandhara--The Buddhist Heritage of Pakistan: Legends, Monasteries and Paradise began an European tour starting in Mainz in 2008 (catalogue edited by M. Jansen, C. Luczanitz, et al). Amidst this activity, three major things have occurred: 1) important results have been obtained from the excavation of Swat Valley sites by an Italian team and the publication of their findings; 2) treasure hunting type excavations have been rampant, resulting in massive amounts of Gandharan sculpture on the Japanese and Western markets; and 3) not only sculpture, but also large numbers of Buddhist manuscripts, stele texts and other artifacts that are critical for an understanding of the true state of Buddhist affairs during their period, have also become known.
In particular, the Italian excavations at the Swat Valley sites Butkara I, Panr and Saidu Sharif I all trace the changes in the arrangement of Buddhist temples, while also advancing our understanding of sculptural types. This article focuses in particular on the early period of Gandharan art.
J. Marshall has previously focused on the sculptural types of the Saka-Parthian period (mid 1st century BC to mid 1st century AD) excavated at such sites as the Sirkap ruins and the Dharmarajika Buddhist temple site. In addition, there are the ruins and sculptural styles excavated by Italian researchers at Butkara I, which are important in a consideration of the initial period of Gandharan art chronology. The project chief, D. Faccenna, has clarified the existence of square-based stupas (small stupas 14 and 17) which are a fusion of Hellenistic and ancient Indian elements dating from the first half of the 1st century (ca. AD 20) at Butkara I, and indicated that the relief sculpture of this period is in a style known as the drawing style.
The many sculptures excavated at Butkara I that Faccenna has classified as drawing style require more study as they are not all the same style, and it can be posited that they were created across a considerable time period. However, thanks to Faccenna's excavations and research, the initial period of Gandharan art needs to be revised to focus on the Saka-Parthian period. J. E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, Ch. Fabregues, G. Fussman and M. Carter have all considered the beginnings of Gandharan art from various angles. The author has also discussed the earliest aspects of Gandharan art going back to the first half to mid 1st century, considering the decorative motifs, the bodhisattva images, the scenes of the Buddha's life story, symbolical representation of the Buddha and the figures of the Buddha, all while offering the group of relief sculptures that present "the Gods Entreat the Buddha to Preach" as the oldest Buddhist figural expression.
Further, the results of the Saidu Sharif I excavations are also important, with their original 60 to 65 relief panels of the Buddha's life story that were inlaid into the cylindrical base of the site's main stupa. These panels were created in a style that was based on the drawing style and then developed into splendidly realistic depiction. Faccenna has placed the production date to the 2nd quarter to mid 1st century, but they probably date from the latter half of the 1st century, after the beginning of the Kushan dynasty. Unfortunately the relief sculptures of the Buddha's life story only remain in fragmentary form, though they can probably be surmised as originally tracing the life of the Buddha from birth to nirvana. They are an important example in our consideration of the establishment of the continuous style of the relief sculpture of the Buddha's life story that forms one of the major characteristics of Gandharan art.
In addition, the so-called toilet-trays are another important art work type for consideration of the early period of Gandharan art. In recent years Tanabe Katsumi has presented detailed studies of the iconography depicted on these toilet-trays, and has offered up a fascinating explanation of these works as the product of the Greek-descent Buddhist worshippers. The author agrees with the explanation that the images on these toilet-trays are on the theme of salvation of the soul of the deceased. However, the author thinks that the majority of Gandharan toilet-trays are not directly related to Buddhist beliefs, but rather had been fostered in the midst of Gandharan Buddhism.
(The author is an art historian specializing in South and central Asian art, a professor emeritus of Nagoya University, a professor of Ryukoku University and curator of Ryukoku Museum.)
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Schist, Fig. H. 175.0 cm
By YOSHIHIDE KOIZUMI
The Gandharan Buddhist sculptures that were created in the region that first began the production of Buddhist sculptures exhibit a realistic depictive style based on Greco-Roman traditions. This sculpture has natural folds in the drapery spanning both of its shoulders, while also revealing other adroit sculptural techniques such as the depiction of individual toes. It is clearly apparent today that the right arm was a later addition, made from other material, and probably this hand would have originally been arranged in the abhaya mudra gesture signifying, "have no fear." Gandharan sculpture was normally carved from a single block of stone, down to the sides of the pedestal, but here the sides and front of the pedestal have been carved from separate pieces of stone.
Many of the Gandharan Buddhas and examples from around the 3rd to 4th century from Central Asia and China have holes in the tops of their heads. Originally these would have been used for the placement of relics or remains. This sculpture lacks that feature, but there is an approximately one centimeter square indentation at the base of the chest, and it is possible that this area served the same purpose.
Gandhara experienced a turning point in the arrangement of its Buddhist temple grounds. As in the preceding early ancient period, the stupa formed the center of the temple complex, but in this case ritual halls were built around it and Buddhist sculptures enshrined in them. Along with the beginning of the worship of Buddhist sculptures, there was also a linking of Buddhist sculptures and relics, thus further adding to the importance of Buddhist sculptures.
(The author is an art historian specializing in South and central Asian art, research associate of Kyushu National Museum.)
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Bodhisattva Maitreya with Crossed Legs
Schist, Fig. H. 62.0 cm
(The Hirayama Ikuo Silk Road Museum, Yamanashi prefecture)
By KASTUMI TANABE
The bodhisattva Maitreya is seated on a low throne (kline) with his feet crossed at the ankles and resting on a footstool. The Brahmanic arrangement of his hair at the top of the head, in two loops forming a horizontal figure eight, indicates that this is the bodhisattva Maitreya. Crossed legs are one of the Maitreya characteristics observed in Gandharan art, originally derived from the Central Asian nomadic sitting posture.
His beard and una (symbol of Xvarnah and legitimate kingship) on the forehead are features shared by Kushan and Parthian kings as seen on their coinage. The figure wears a necklace whose two terminals are decorated with the head of Ketos, a Greek sea monster and divine escort of the souls of the dead to the other world. He also wears a sacred string or thread (yajnopavita), along with another symbol of Brahmin caste, a water flask (kamandalu) held in the left hand, though now unfortunately lost.
(The author is an historian specializing in Central and west Asian art and a professor of Chuo University.)
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Schist, Fig. H. 62 cm
By AKIRA MIYAJI
The excavation site of this Gandharan Buddha triad is unknown. Formerly in the collection of Claude de Marteau in Brussels, today it is owned by the Agon Shu Buddhist organization in Japan. The central figure is a Buddha seated on a lotus pedestal with hands arranged in the dharmacakra or preaching mudra, while the two side figures are standing bodhisattvas, all carved in high relief that is almost sculpture in the round. The upper bodies of Brahma and Indra are shown behind the shoulders of the central Buddha, while the Buddha-field is shown above his head in the form of imaginary flowering trees.
The bodhisattva on the left has his hair arranged in a topknot, and though his left hand is missing, it probably originally held a water flask, and thus is thought to be Maitreya bodhisattva. The figure on the left has his hair arranged in a turban decoration, and the small Buddha figure attached to the front of that turban has his hands arranged in the dhyana or meditation mudra and thus it can be surmised that this small Buddha is Avalokitesvara bodhisattva.
This sculptural group is closely related both in iconography and style to two Buddha Triads (Peshawar Museum, nos. 1527 and 277) that were excavated at Sahri-Bahlol. This sculpture has a Kharosthi inscription on its pedestal, and the inscription, "5th year," that suggests the year it was dedicated. The author hypothesizes that this is probably the Post-Kushan dynasty usage of the Kaniska reign date, omitting the 100 year letters, where Kaniska 105 = AD 231. There are at present 42 known examples of Gandharan Buddha triads. The majority center on Sakyamuni with attendants Maitreya bodhisattva and Avalokitesvara bodhisattva in the Mahayana Buddha manifestation theory. This work stands as a representative example of this type and is important for our understanding of Mahayana Buddhist art in Gandhara.
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Panel with Three Episodes: (1) Subjugation of the Elephant (2) Skull-Tapper (3) The Boy Tied to a Tree
Schist H. 60.8 cm, W. 29.5 cm
(The Hirayama Ikuo Silk Road Museum, Yamanashi prefecture)
By KATSUMI TANABE
Three horizontal sections presenting episodes taken from the life of the Buddha are arranged vertically. The top section depicts the well-known subjugation of the ferocious elephant Nalagiri or Dhanapala. This elephant was driven by Devadatta, a cousin and antagonist of the Buddha, who wanted to kill him. Eventually, the elephant rushed to the Buddha but was pacified by his miraculous power.
The second section depicts the story of the Brahmin Vangisa (Mrgasiras) who had the power to foresee the exact place of rebirth following death by tapping the relevant skull. However, he was unable to place the location of the deceased monk Udena (Udyana) who had attained nirvana. The Buddha explained this reason to Vangisa, who then acknowledged the superiority of the Buddha by becoming his disciple.
The third section depicts the story of the Buddha rescuing a boy who was tied by his elder brother to a tree in a secluded cemetery. The elder brother was ordered by his wicked wife to kill his younger brother because she did not want to give him any portion of the inheritance left by their father. After his rescue, the boy became a disciple of the Buddha.
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Schist, Fig. H. 123 cm
By YOSHIHIDE KOIZUMI
Hariti is one of the indigenous Indian deities, and a popular goddess related to childbirth, childrearing and family well-being. In terms of figural depiction, this goddess imagery has been conflated with that of such goddesses as Tyche, the Greek goddess who protected cities and their wealth, and the Iranian goddess Ardra. It is thought that production of images of this goddess began during the Kushan dynasty. This figure is strictly forward facing and flat, its connection with Parthian art has been indicated.
The expression of the hips is also shared by figures excavated at Butkara I in Swat, thus suggesting a possible production site and date to the 1st century. The citadel style crown worn by this figure is known to be the type worn by Tyche. This feature is thought to have reached Gandhara via Parthia, but it is hard to find other figures of this deity with this crown feature, suggesting that this crown type was not necessarily an essential feature of Hariti images. This crown type shows that the attributes of this goddess had not yet been fully organized and the early date of its production led to the eclectic nature of its form.
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Head of a Buddha
Stucco, Fig. H. 40.0 cm
By SHUMPEI IWAI
This stucco Buddha head was excavated near Tarbela in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The head measures approximately 40 cm high, 20 cm wide and 30 cm deep. The idealized facial expression on this head is typical of the stucco images excavated in the North-West Frontier, characterized by its hollow philtrum and infralabial carving, and high ushnisha. Traces of the original polychrome decoration remain on the surface of the image. Similar stucco image examples have been excavated across a wide area stretching from Hadda to Taxila.
It is highly likely that this image dates to the 4th or 5th century, but given that the dating of stucco figures remains uncertain, it is hard to specifically date this work. In particular, the Taxila cultural region that includes Tarbela began to produce stucco at the latest in the 1st century, and thus it is not simply compared to the strictly defined Gandharan region.
(The author is an art historian specializing in Central Asian art, a lecturer of the Ryukoku Museum.)
(Translated by Martha J. McClintock except for Tanabe articles)