2016年9月1日 星期四

Walter Gropius (1883-1969), “Total Scope of Architecture”, Introduction to Experiment in Totality by Sibyl Moholy-Nagy


1973 整體建築總論(“Total Scope of Architecture”, Walter Gropius [1954?]),
《整體建築總論》;漢寶德譯,又收入《新建築與包浩斯》,王錦堂 等譯,台北:臺隆書店。
此書,Experiment in Totality by Sibyl Moholy-Nagy ( Oct. 1969 第二版)感人。
它是Walter Gropius (1883-1969) 的愛將 László Moholy- Nagy (1895-1946)的 (第2任)夫人Sibyl Moholy-Nagy (1903-1971)寫其先生在德國包浩斯和芝加哥設立設計學院的創作回憶錄。
值得一讀 。 László "Moholy Nagy認為,人動手起來 ,可影響其心靈和感情。
"Moholy Nagy: Experiment In Totality" 的卷首真言(motto), 乃取自 Alice in Wonderland 首章一句:
"And she tried to fancy what the flame of a candle looks like after the candle is blown out, for she could not remember ever having seen such a thing."

Moholy Nagy 1946.11.24 臨終的話 ,匈牙利語


 byWalter Gropius, chairman, department of architecture, Harvard University

 When I first saw the manuscript of this book I felt a certain apprehension which, I think, was quite natural for one who is about to see the life and work of his close friend revealed to the public; a friend, moreover, whose activities were so intense!} connected with one of the most decisive periods of my own life. But soon I felt reassured as I became acquainted with this splendid and honest account of Moholy-Nagy's development from earl\ experiments to full maturity. Moholy was always in the public eye, yet most people saw only the more obvious milestones of achievement which crystallize into "news stories." The other story, the intimate and often bitter story of one man's struggle for fulfillment, has been up to now the precious possession of his friends and collaborators, and of his wife, who was certainly the most devoted.

 Looking back today, the difficult, contradictory and confusing years between the two World Wars, which form the background for the greater part of this book, seem to have provided a pitifully short time for a generation which approached its artistic endeavors with the zeal and enthusiasm released by the political change in Central Europe. But it was a period inspired by constructive ideas not as yet subjected to the blight of frustration which overshadows the world today. Those were the years of Moholy 's and my col- laboration in the Bauhaus of Weimar and Dessau, the development of which was deeply influenced by Moholy, the fiery stimulator. 

 After the Nazi nightmare had caused us both to leave Germany, we saw each other again in England, and later in the United States where I was fortunate enough to secure his leadership for The New Bauhaus in Chicago, subsequently renamed the Institute of Design. As the Bauhaus principles had never been based on limited nationalistic concepts, its seeds could be transplanted and further developed in this country. Against heavy odds which might have vii discouraged a giant, Moholy managed to pull the Institute through difficult years, never losing his indomitable courage and 
confidence. And still he did not let himself become absorbed only in his educational work, extensive as it was, but simultaneously produced a wealth of art that embraces the whole range of the visual arts. 

 His greatest effort as an artist was devoted to the conquest of space. His genius ventured into all realms of science and art to unriddle the phenomena of space and light. In painting, sculpture and architecture, in theater and industrial design, in photography and film, advertising and typography, he incessantly strove to interpret space in its relation to time, that is, motion in space.

 Constantly developing new ideas Moholy maintained an unbiased curiosity, from which originated his continually fresh point of view. With a shrewd sense of observation he investigated every- thing that came his way, taking nothing for granted, always applying his acute sense of the organic. His was the attitude of an unprejudiced, happy child at play, surprising us by the direct- ness of his intuitive approach. Here I believe was the source of his priceless quality as an educator: his never-ceasing power to stimulate and fire others with his enthusiasm. What more can true education achieve than setting the student's mind in motion by that contagious magic? 

 Moholy has been successful simultaneously as thinker and artist,, as writer and teacher. That would seem to be almost too vast a range for one man, but abundant versatility was uniquely his. With his power of imagination he kept this broad variety of interests in balance. His vision took brilliant shortcuts, synchronizing: his observations into a consistent whole, for he was aware of the danger of today's over specialization which so often leads to fallacies. 

Moholy seems always to have been acutely conscious of the preciousness of time; he worked with dedicated zeal to realize his ideas as though driven by the recognition that the destructive tendencies of our time could be changed into constructive forces!; only by a universal, superhuman effort. He had convinced himself of the generative power of all art and he wanted to see that power liberated in each individual with whom he came in contact. He had molded himself into a world citizen who would not let his ever-broadening outlook be narrowed by national barriers. Thus, Moholy the artist finally became a moral leader, all his activities being controlled by his strong social responsibility.

This book, Moholy-Nagy, Experiment in Totality, is evidence of a new attitude in the contemplation and formation of our physical world.

Born ‪#‎onthisday‬ in 1883: Walter Gropius, architect and founder of the Bauhaus school. He designed the shape of this teapot in 1969http://ow.ly/MWk5J