2012年9月18日 星期二

Bill Moggridge

Bill Moggridge

Bill Moggridge, who has died aged 69, was a British-born industrial designer and “put the world in a briefcase” when he created the world’s first folding laptop computer.

William Moggridge
William Moggridge Photo: FRED R CONRAD/NEW YORK TIMES
Like many British design talents, Moggridge made his name in America where, in 1979, he designed a device known as the GRiD Compass. Released in 1982 and priced at $8,150, the GRiD Compass had 340 kb of internal “bubble” memory and a keyboard connected by a hinge to a six-inch yellow-on-black display screen, all cased within a black, die-cast magnesium-alloy case.
The laptop’s 4.5kg lightweight build made it an instant hit with US paratroopers, who used it during the invasion of Grenada in 1983, and with Nasa, which put it on Space Shuttles in the 1980s.
Not many other people could afford the hefty price tag . But even as laptops became lighter, cheaper and more powerful, manufacturers continued to rely on Moggridge’s basic “clamshell” concept.
William Grant Moggridge was born in London on June 25 1943. His mother was an artist and his father a civil servant. After leaving school he studied industrial design at the Central School of Design in London (now the Central St Martin’s College of Art and Design). In 1969 he established his own consultancy, Moggridge Associates, on the top floor of his London home. His first successful commercial design was a toaster for Hoover UK. Ten years later he opened a new design firm called ID Two at Palo Alto, in California’s Silicon Valley.
Moggridge found himself in the right place at the right time. Companies in Silicon Valley were beginning to switch from manufacturing chips to making products, and he soon found himself collaborating in “garage” projects with Apple Computer, Microsoft and GRiD Systems.
Moggridge developed his hi-tech design business internationally, and in 1991 merged his company with two other firms to form Ideo, a design firm with offices around the world.
His experience designing the GRiD Compass inspired a fascination with what is known as “interaction design”, which looks at how humans interact with machines, from mobile phones to supermarket checkouts. He became the recognised leader in the field, publishing a well-received book, Designing Interactions, in 2006. At Ideo he established a design process that involved not only teams of engineers and designers but also anthropologists and psychologists.

In 2010 Moggridge was appointed director of the Smithsonian Institution’s Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York, overseeing a time of rapid expansion.

Although Moggridge lived in the United States, he made regular return visits to Britain. He was a trustee of the Design Museum in London from 1992 to 1995 and spent a year as visiting professor in interaction design at the Royal College of Art in 1993. In 2010 he was awarded the Prince Philip Designers’ Prize, which “recognises an outstanding contribution to UK business and society through design”.

Moggridge was particularly scathing about the design of remote control devices, noting that his wife had adopted the practice of wrapping them in up in paper, cutting holes in the paper to reveal only those buttons she needed and labelling them in plain English.

Yet the laptop, too, is sometimes seen as a bit of a mixed blessing. When Michelle Obama presented Moggridge with a design award in 2009, she admitted that, without their laptops, her children “wouldn’t make it through the summer”, before adding: “I don’t know whether to thank you, Bill, for that.” Meanwhile, the tranquil commuter train journey, free of the clicketyclack of the laptop, is now little more than a distant memory.

Moggridge is survived by his wife, Karin, and by two sons.

William Moggridge, born June 25 1943, died September 8 2012


威廉•莫格里奇(William Moggridge)


对于69岁去世的工业设计先驱莫格里奇来说,这块被砸碎的手表呼唤他走上设计之路,而他的事业日后将对数字技术给人们带来的日常体验产生重大影响。 早在史蒂夫•乔布斯(Steve Jobs)的苹果(Apple)数字梦工厂设计出首台Mac电脑之前,莫格里奇就高举起技术人性化的大旗。


威廉•格兰特•莫格里奇1943年6月25日出生在伦敦,他没有步父亲的后尘成为一名公务员,而是追随了身为设计师的母亲。他毕业于中央艺术与设计学院(Central School of Art and Design),在1969年成立了自己的工业设计工作室。

莫格里奇在战后单调呆板的伦敦长大,这让他对日常物品的外观十分着迷。他的父母没有汽车,也没有电视机,或许正因此他才陶醉于美国的物质丰饶。他曾 经对《纽约时报》(New York Times)表示,这是一种“不可能的幻想”。20世纪70年代末,他已在加州帕洛阿尔托扎根,这座兴起的城市将成为后来的硅谷。

与迁居至该地区的苏格兰工程师约翰•艾伦比(John Ellenby)偶遇,让莫格里奇的新工作室声名鹊起。成果是1982年投产的GRID Compass,它带有可以上翻的屏幕,机身嵌入键盘,以此为原型的“扇贝”式翻盖机器最终成为了如今全球销量最高的主流计算机设备。8000美元的售价让GRID Compass很难被消费者接受,但它得到了军方使用,还登上过太空飞船。


“我认为我们有机会创造新的设计准则,它应当致力于在虚拟世界创造有想象力、有吸引力的体验,让人们能够设计行为、动画、声音和形状,”他后来在自 己哲学的总结之作《关键设计报告》(Designing Interactions)中写道,“这也等同于工业设计,只不过它涉及软件,而不是三维的物体。”

1991年,他将自己的工作室与David Kelley Design和Matrix Product Design工作室合并,成立了Ideo设计咨询公司。“交互设计”的概念正是在此时完全成形。Ideo本身也是技术设计的新构思,代表了流程和文化上的 突破。他曾经告诉英国《金融时报》,它的目标是聚集一批核心的“T型”人才:既精通认知心理学、计算机科学和工业设计等不同种类的学科,又有兴趣和能力将 自己的技能应用到其他领域。

苹果的首款计算机鼠标和Palm V掌上电脑便是Ideo麾下的突破性产品。Ideo的工作预示着智能手机和社交网络的到来。早在Facebook面世之前,莫格里奇就设计过一个系统,当银行工作人员查阅账户详情时,系统能够显示出顾客头像,而不是只给出一串数字。


莫格里奇于2009年迁至纽约,担任库珀•休伊特国立设计博物馆(Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum)馆长,该馆隶属于史密森尼学会(Smithsonian Institution)。在英国,他在2010年获得了菲利普亲王设计奖(Prince Philip prize for design)。莫格里奇的遗属有妻子凯琳与两个儿子亚历克斯(Alex)和埃里克(Erik)。



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bill Moggridge
Bill Moggridge
Bill Moggridge at CIID in June 2010
Born William Grant Moggridge[1]
June 25, 1943[1]
London, England
Died September 8, 2012 (aged 69)[2]
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Cause of death Cancer[2]
Nationality British
Alma mater Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design
Occupation Director, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Cofounder and Fellow, IDEO
Years active 1965–2012
Spouse Karin Moggridge
Children Alex Moggridge
Erik Moggridge
William Grant "Bill" Moggridge, RDI (June 25, 1943 – September 8, 2012) was a British designer, author and educator who cofounded the design company IDEO[3] and was director of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York.[4] He was a pioneer in adopting a human-centred approach in design, and championed interaction design as a mainstream design discipline (he is given credit for coining the term). Among his achievements, he designed the first laptop computer, the GRiD Compass[5], was honoured for Lifetime Achievement from the National Design Awards,[6] and given the Prince Philip Designers Prize.[7][8] He was quoted as saying, "If there is a simple, easy principle that binds everything I have done together, it is my interest in people and their relationship to things."[9]


Education and early career

Moggridge studied industrial design from 1962 to 1965 at Central St Martins College of Art and Design, London,[10] in 1965, he went to the US to find opportunities as a designer and landed his first job as a designer for the American Sterilizer Co. in Erie, Pennsylvania, designing hospital equipment. In 1969, Moggridge returned to London to study typography and communications.[11]

Moggridge Associates

In 1969 in London, Moggridge founded his first company, Moggridge Associates, in the top floor of his home. His first industrial design to reach the market was a toaster for Hoover UK. In 1972, he worked on his first computer project, a Mini Computer for Computer Technology Ltd, UK, that was not produced. In 1973, another Hoover UK design, for a space heater, got on the cover of a UK design magazine.[11]

ID Two

Moggridge returned to the US in 1979 to open another office, called ID Two, first located in Palo Alto, California.[3] An early client was GRiD Systems, for whom he designed what is widely regarded as the first laptop computer, the GRiD Compass. This was the first portable computer with a display that closed over the keyboard, a patented innovation that GRiD licensed for many years. It retailed at $8,150 (£5,097) and flew on board every Space Shuttle mission from 1983 to 1997.[5][12]
In 1982, designer Mike Nuttall joined ID Two from the London office, and worked on another portable computer project for Convergent Technologies. Because of the potential for conflict of interest, Nuttall left ID Two to form his own firm in Palo Alto, Matrix Product Design.
In this period, Moggridge also began teaching in Stanford University's Product Design Program, where he met fellow teacher David Kelley, who had his own engineering design firm, David Kelley Design.


In 1991, Moggridge was a co-founder of IDEO with David Kelley and Mike Nuttall, as all four firms merged into one. Moggridge stayed at IDEO until 2010, when he was named an IDEO Fellow.[3]


In March 2010, Moggridge left IDEO to become director of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in New York City, the first person to do so without a museum background. The Cooper-Hewitt is the only museum in the US devoted exclusively to historic and contemporary design.[13]

Academic and industry roles

From 1983 to 2010, Moggridge was consulting associate professor in different departments at Stanford University, including the Product Design Program,[14] the Center for Work, Technology, and Organization,[15] and the d.school (officially the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design).[16]
Moggridge was Congress Chair for CONNECTING'07, the Icsid World Design Congress held in San Francisco, a role that began in 2000 as he led the effort to prepare a bid that was presented at the 2001 Icsid Congress in Seoul, Korea.[17][18]
In 2003, Moggridge became a Steering Committee Member at Interaction Design Institute in Ivrea, Italy.[19]
In 1993, he was a visiting professor in interaction design at Royal College of Art in London[20] and he was a trustee at the Design Museum in London 1992-1995.[2] He had been an advisor to the British government on design education in 1974,[18] and a Board member at the Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design.[21].

Awards and honours

Moggridge was given an honorary doctorate from CCA (California College of the Arts) in San Francisco in 2012.[10]
In FastCompany's October 2011 issue, Moggridge was profiled as a Master of Design[22], and named one of the 50 Most Influential Designers in America.[23]
In 2010, he was given the Prince Philip Designers Prize.[7]
Moggridge was given a Lifetime Achievement Award in 2009 at the National Design Awards, in a ceremony at the White House, presided over by First Lady Michelle Obama[6]
The Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA) named Moggridge a Fellow in 2006.[18]
In 1988 Moggridge was named a Royal Designer for Industry by the RSA (Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce).[24]


In October 2006, Moggridge published Designing Interactions (The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-13474-8), a 764-page introduction to and history of interaction design comprising 40-plus interviews with designers and entrepreneurs, from Douglas Engelbart to Will Wright to Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Moggridge conducted the interviews, recorded and edited the videos (included with the book on a DVD), and designed the book and the book's website. Business week named it one of the Best Innovation and Design Books in 2006[25], and Don Norman wrote, "This will be the book--the book that summarizes how the technology of interaction came into being and prescribes how it will advance in the future."[26]
He followed this in October, 2010 with Designing Media (The MIT Press, ISBN 0262014858), another compilation of more than 35 interviews with experts in various media, new and old, including Mark Zuckerberg, Chad Hurley, Tim Westergren, Ira Glass, Craig Newmark, Hans Rosling, and DJ Spooky. Again, Moggridge conducted the interviews, wrote the text, and designed the book and the book's website.

Film and video

Moggridge is a central figure in Gary Hustwit's 2009 documentary on design, Objectified.
In 2010, Moggridge directed and produced a short film, Professor Poubelle, about Doug Wilde, a Stanford Professor Emeritus who began picking up trash on his daily bike rides up a steep mountain highway.

See also

Further reading