2008年3月22日 星期六

The Federal Military Memorial Cemetery,

"俄 羅斯的「聯邦軍事紀念公墓」本周開始整地,位在莫斯科以北的公墓,為俄國版的美國阿靈頓公墓。宏偉的公墓完成時,將成國家元首與民族英雄長眠之地,換句話 說,興建公墓,普亭不僅在圓史達林的美夢,他本人也將可與他推崇的聖人史達林埋在同一個地方。預計2010年竣工,成為莫斯科的新地標。 新公墓號稱是蘇聯垮台後,俄國最具雄心的建築計畫。公墓將極盡堂皇之能事,以重現俄國榮耀。 許多人認為,公墓的新古典建築形式與蘇聯時代的風格相近。在獨裁的普亭於俄國普受愛戴後,俄國將領建議讓俄國總統與民族英雄長眠於蘇聯的光輝中。公墓因此最後定調為蘇聯主題,批評者則認為這項設計為共產時代復活的跡象。 公墓的首席建築師高耶夫表示,雖然新古典的建築可能讓人聯想到蘇聯的高壓政治。他說:「在別人眼中,它可能是高壓,但對我們,它是莊嚴與榮耀。"

「聯邦軍事紀念公墓」可能有誤: federal指 [before noun] relating to the central government, and not to the government of a region, of some countries
Russian Federation (the ~) ロシア連邦.

"高壓政治"為 oppress (RULE) 此處談的是此種設計風格讓人"有壓迫感"


Vladimir Putin's last resting place - with Stalin
By Adrian Blomfield in Moscow
Last Updated: 2:04am GMT 23/03/2008

Vladimir Putin is to fulfil an unrealised dream of Joseph Stalin's by creating a grandiose state cemetery.In a corner of northern Moscow bulldozers began churning the earth his week in a section of wasteland where Mr Putin and Stalin, the dictator he is said to revere, could one day be laid side by side.

The Federal Military Memorial Cemetery, its designers boast, will be Russia's answer to America's Arlington. Arguably the most ambitious architectural project undertaken since the fall of the Soviet Union, it remains to be seen whether the cemetery, due to be completed by 2010, will become the landmark the Kremlin hopes.

There is no doubt that the project encapsulates the Putin era, which officially ends on May 7, though the president is likely to remain Russia's most powerful man in his new job as prime minister.

The cemetery will be a testament to extravagance, a piece of architectural monumentalism intended to reflect the glory of a resurgent Russia. For the critics, it is also a worrying sign of the Kremlin's flirtation with its Communist past. The design marks a return to the style many assumed had gone with the end of the Soviet Union.

Drawings show that the 132 acre site will feature obelisks, golden statues of figures from Russia's past and friezes of workers in heroic poses.

It is architecture from the era of heroic realism and a style of propaganda favoured by both Stalin and Hitler - a fact that has dismayed a dwindling number of liberal architects fighting the current trend of Soviet nostalgia.

The concept of a national cemetery was resurrected in the early 1990s by a state-owned body called Mosproject-4. The designer Alexander Taranin said he wanted to create a minimalistic cemetery that gave a quiet and honest reflection of Russia.

"We tried to show the difficult road the country has travelled while still being optimistic about the future," he said.

The Yeltsin government ignored the project but the plans gained traction after Mr Putin came to power in 2000. But as the liberalism of the 1990s gave way to Putin's authoritarianism, Mosproject-4 fell out of fashion. Russia's generals felt that a Soviet theme would be fitting for the final resting place of Russia's presidents and national heroes.

Mosproject was usurped by the Combine of Monumental Decorative Art, a turgid Soviet-era state institution that was again in the Kremlin's favour.

Its chief architect, Sergei Goryaev, was only too happy to oblige the generals - even if it meant aping the neo-classical style of the past that had done so much to give Moscow its oppressive atmosphere.

A drawing of Moscow’s Federal Military Memorial Cemetery: Vladimir Putin's last resting place - with Stalin
A drawing captures the grandeur of Moscow’s monolithic Federal Military Memorial Cemetery, Vladimir Putin’s corpse will be transported to the cemetery’s pantheon in an armoured personnel carrier

"What is oppressive to you is solemn and glorious to us," he said. "The Soviet empire's style has many beautiful examples which are among the highlights of 20th century architecture anywhere."

An updated funeral ceremony for heads of state is also being developed that restores some of the militaristic traditions of the past. When Mr Putin dies, his corpse will be transported to the cemetery's pantheon in an armoured personnel carrier before being laid to rest, Mr Goryaev said.

He added that it was possible that leading figures from the Soviet era, such as Stalin, could be reburied in the cemetery.

It is possible that Lenin could be moved there as well.