2012年9月8日星期六

Edvard Munch: The Frieze of Life; A Modern Man




Edvard Munch

A modern man

There is more to Edvard Munch than “The Scream”, as a new exhibition at the Tate Modern shows (2)



Edvard Munch at the Tate Modern

A modern man

Sep 5th 2012, 19:29 by S.P.


EDVARD MUNCH is commonly perceived as the father of Nordic noir, the painter of 1890s symbolist psychodramas with titles like “Vampire” and “The Scream”. A new exhibition at the Tate Modern in London, “Edvard Munch: The Modern Eye”, suggests we look beyond.
Munch lived fast but he did not die young, not until the age of 80 in 1944. He survived “The Scream”, his most famous work, by some fifty years. What did he do with that time? Like David Hockney, he continued over a long life to be interested in, and to incorporate, new ideas and technologies into his art. Mr Hockney uses the Polaroid, the photocopier and the iPad; Munch used new cameras, X-ray and the scientific and philosophical ideas contained in the books in his extensive library. Nietzsche and Dostoyevsky are obvious influences but the large number of books on mathematics and science are more surprising. His collection included a well-thumbed 1919 edition of Einstein’s “Theory of Relativity”.
The first room in the exhibition consists of self-portraits seen through different “modern eyes”, including the still and film cameras. Munch bought his first camera in 1902. Its slightly wide-angle lens resulted in foreshortening, exaggerated perspective and interesting areas of deliberate blurring, features he adopted in “Fresh Snow in the Avenue” (pictured above),  “On the Operating Table” and “Galloping Horse”, all completed within a decade of the purchase.
The camera also allowed him to take self-portraits from angles otherwise impossible to paint—a painter can see only so much in a mirror. His first camera had no shutter release so he had to photograph himself at arm’s length and move to press the button. This resulted in ghosting: his body appearing transparent through the background. He was already interested in Spiritualist photographs, though he scoffed at Spiritualism itself. Spirit photographs used multiple exposures to produce transparent “ghosts”. Munch used the same technique to merge two subjects together, seen in the “Fatal Destiny” series in this exhibition. Often, one subject is himself and the other is one of his own artworks, raising the intriguing question of the overlaps between art and artist.
Munch was in Paris when X–rays were discovered around 1895. People held X-ray parties: in the blue glow of the rays, jewels became incandescent and actors performed skeleton dances. At street booths, you could have your X-ray portrait taken through a block of wood, so you could see both your own bones and the pattern of the wood grain. Munch responded to X-rays in two ways. In 1895, he produced “Self-portrait with Skeleton Arm”, a lithograph showing his fully-fleshed face over the skeleton bones of his arm resting, as it were, along the base of the picture frame. And in his woodcuts, such as “The Kiss”, he left the woodblock deliberately unprimed so that the knots and striations became part of the finished picture.
In 1911, one of Munch’s close friends started a cinema in Oslo. Munch enjoyed taking his dogs along to watch the films. He bought a film camera in 1927 and some of what he shot is shown at the exhibition along with material from contemporary magazines and newspapers. This is designed to support the idea that his “modern eye” was heavily influenced in the 20th century by press photographs and moving images. This is true but only up to a point. Transparency, layered composition, exaggerated foreshortening, distortion and close-up heads feature in his earlier work too. See the bathing figure paintings of 1887–89 for example, or “Jealousy” from 1895.

Munch’s art changed radically from 1906-08. One reason was a commission to carry out set designs for Henrik Ibsen’s plays “Ghosts” and “Hedda Gabler”. He painted various “series” pictures set within a stage-like space, a claustrophobic low-ceilinged room with the front wall missing. This approach is suited to his brothel series and the series of his ex-girlfriend Tulla Larsen, whom he portrays as a murderess. Concerned that his work had grown stale, in 1907 he began the “Weeping Woman” series in which he developed a new way forward. “I felt that the flat plane and wavy lines were becoming mere mannerisms… I painted a number of pictures with broad, distinct lines, horizontal lines and vertical lines as well as converging diagonal brushstrokes.”  This can be seen in all six versions of “Weeping Woman” that the Tate displays alongside related material.
Munch lost his vision in his right eye as a result of a hemorrhage in 1930. As his sight returned, he painted a meticulous record of what he could see. At first, only blurry circles. Then normal vision around the edges of a huge blood clot which shrinks and eventually disappears. They are a testament to the artist’s courage as his fear of losing his sight vies with his interest in recording vision through a damaged eye.
Nobody but Rembrandt did such magnificent late self-portraits as Munch, and the last room unflinchingly records his decline towards death. Munch said he always smelled decaying flesh when he looked at “Self-portrait with Spanish Flu” from 1919. He was surprised other people could not smell it too. “Self-portrait with Bottles” shows him patently drunk and is painted with the double vision of the inebriated. The final, great “Self-portrait between Clock and Bed” (pictured) shows his old, shrunken frame standing to attention between the clock that will mark his passing and the bed in which he will die. It is unbearably moving.
This exhibition was at the Centre Pompidou in Paris last year, where huge boards telling the viewer what to think made it too didactic. Now, Nicholas Cullinan, the curator at the Tate Modern, has done a wonderful job in rearranging the pieces so they tell their own story. The thematic approach, which can seem to be an end in itself in some exhibitions, works well when so thoughtfully deployed.
Edvard Munch: The Modern Eye” is at the Tate Modern until October 14th





2009.6 
Edvard Munch 簡介:生命三相
『紐約時報』為周日的 Edvard Munch1963-1944 )特展寫篇介紹(Art Review ):「Munch 遠不只一聲吶喊」( Munch Was More Than a Scream),這當然影射其名畫(尤其是近日盜畫者的審判要開庭 ……),或許也有可能借『聖經』中的「人生 /萬古在上帝如一聲長嘆」(?)之說法,Munch 一生有其主題:The Frieze of Life— 75歲自選的代表作系列,詳下文。
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關於 Munch,有約35 年的神交。多年前在NHK看到日本為他製造的專集,印象深刻,可惜當時未留下紀錄。
永和有本他的專集和北歐印的表現主義等。
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中文方面:
Arne Egum1984)『蒙克』湖南美術出版社, 1989
這本根據挪威版翻譯,可惜其中的德文【傳主在柏林數年,是其事業影響力最大的地方】,都沒請人幫忙解釋。
J. P. Hodin 著「孟克 Edvard Munch 朱紀蓉 譯,台北:遠流出版,1997,絕版
讀書報告以後再補。
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英文之簡介:
這回在 INTERNET上看他一部20 餘分鐘的畫作-生平介紹,是很難得的經驗:
Edvard Munch: The Frieze of Life
`We should no longer paint interiors with men reading and women knitting. We should paint living people who breathe, feel, suffer and love.' This manifesto, written in 1889 by the twenty-six-year-old Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, was implemented by him throughout the 1890s in major works on the universal themes of love, anxiety and death, linked in a `symphonic arrangement' he titled The Frieze of Life. Shot on location in Norway and from original paintings and graphic works, with commentary mainly drawn from Munch's own writings, this video explores the psychological and artistic origins and significance of some of the most arresting images in European art.
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The Frieze of Life themes recur throughout Munch's work, in paintings such as The Sick Child (1886, portrait of his deceased sister Sophie), Vampire (1893 94), Ashes ( 1894), and The Bridge. The latter shows limp figures with featureless or hidden faces, over which loom the threatening shapes of heavy trees and brooding houses. Munch portrayed women either as frail, innocent sufferers or as lurid, life-devouring vampires. Munch analysts say this reflects his sexual anxieties.
In December 1893, Unter den Linden in Berlin held an exhibition of Munch's work, showing, among other pieces, six paintings entitled Study for a Series: Love. This began a cycle he later called the Frieze of Life — A Poem about Life, Love and Death. Frieze of Life motifs are steeped in atmosphere such as The Storm, Moonlight and Starry Night. Other motifs illuminate the nocturnal side of love, such as Rose and Amelie and Vampire. In Death in the Sickroom ( 1893), he depicts his sister Sophie's death to illustrate the morbid theme. The dramatic focus of the painting, in which he portrays the entire family, is the Munch figure. In 1894, he enlarged the spectrum of motifs by adding Anxiety, Ashes, Madonna and Women in Three Stages .
Around the turn of the century, Munch worked to finish the Frieze. He painted a number of pictures, several of them in larger format and to some extent featuring the art nouveau aesthetics of the time. He made a wooden frame with carved reliefs for the large painting Metabolism (1898), initially called Adam and Eve. This work reveals Munch's preoccupation with the "fall of man" myth in Munch's pessimistic philosophy of love. Motifs such as The Empty Cross and Golgota (both c. 1900) reflect a metaphysical orientation to the times, and also echo Munch's pietistic upbringing. The entire Frieze showed for the first time at the secessionist exhibition in Berlin in 1902.
Munch Museum, Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society, New York
"The Kiss" (1892)

Munch Museum, Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society, New York
"The Dance of Life" (1899-1900)
Published: February 17, 2006
EDVARD MUNCH'S vision of modern angst, "The Scream," has been much in the news lately. The trial of six suspects in the theft of one version from an Oslo museum began this week; the painting has not been recovered. The image of "The Scream" has been so widely embraced and reproduced that if you hear the name Munch "The Scream" comes instantly to mind, and vice versa. Yet Munch (1863-1944) regarded "The Scream" as an aberration, one that cast the shadow of insanity on a body of art that he intended to address more universal aspects of human experience.
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Munch Museum, Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society, New York

Munch Museum, Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society, New York
"Young Woman on the Beach (The Lonely One)" (1896) More Photos >
"Edvard Munch: The Modern Life of the Soul" opens Sunday and is on view through May 8 at the Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53rd Street; (212) 708-9400. "Edvard Munch: Symbolism in Print" is on view through May 13 at Scandinavia House, 58 Park Avenue, near 38th Street, (212) 879-9779,.
Multimedia

Munch Museum, Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society, New York
"Man's Head in Woman's Hair" (1896) More Photos >
"Self-Portrait With Cigarette," an Edvard Munch oil from 1895, in the Museum of Modern Art's new exhibition. More Photos >

"Edvard Munch: The Modern Life of the Soul," an affecting full-scale retrospective that opens Sunday at the Museum of Modern Art, presents this broader view. The first survey of the Norwegian painter in an American museum in almost 30 years, it was organized by Kynaston McShine, chief curator at large of the Modern. Its more than 130 oils and works on paper cover Munch's entire career, from 1880 to 1944. It also includes a large selection of the prints — many of them ingeniously adapted from his oils — that played an important role in his art.
"Mermaid," not seen publicly until 2003, is among the paintings. Munch's first decorative work, this sexy 3-by-11-foot canvas was commissioned in 1896 by the Norwegian industrialist and collector Axel Heiberg for his home. Taking a Symbolist approach to a traditional Nordic theme, Munch depicted a voluptuous mermaid emerging from a moonlit sea, her fin wrapped around the moon's reflection. Not real but somehow not quite a figment, she almost certainly relates to the moonlight strolls Munch took on the beach with his first lover.
"The Scream," although not the focus of the show, is not neglected. Two 1895 lithographs of the image, one with watercolor, are on view. An ectoplasmic being stands on a bridge against a lurid setting sun, hands to ears, mouth open to emit a horrendous howl. Its genesis, Munch wrote, was during a walk across a bridge in Kristiania (now Oslo) with two friends. He felt a "tinge of melancholy" as the sun set. He stopped, leaned against the railing while his friends walked on, and saw "the flaming clouds that hung like blood and a sword" over the water and the city. Shivering with fright, he "felt a loud, unending scream piercing nature."
It took several false starts before this became the trenchant visual expression of Munch's feeling, the product of his own anxiety and depression at the time. When he finally made the image we know today, he noted faintly on the probable first version (1893) that "it could only have been painted by a madman." But it strikes such a universal chord that it has become something of a conduit between the artist's soul-searching work and pop culture, evolving over the years into a symbol that these days appears even on refrigerator magnets and inflatable dolls.
And yet, for all its roots in Symbolism, the turn-of-the-century European movement that sought to replace naturalism with the imagery of fantasy, dream and psychic experience, "The Scream" apparently had little to do with what Munch saw as the real thrust of his art.
That took in such existential matters as birth, love, loss, emotional turmoil, the search for one's identity and the inevitable decline into death. In these paintings Munch struggled to render his own emotional and psychological traumas, including the deaths of his mother and older sister, as well as his doomed first real love affair, into universal images that resonated with the outside world. By so doing, he said, he hoped to "understand the meaning of life" and to help others gain similar insights.
More in line with his main themes are paintings like "Madonna" (1894-95), a powerfully erotic image of a nude seductress that conveys the artist's conflation of love and death, and a lithograph of the same subject whose lurid border depicts spermatozoa and a distorted fetus. "Madonna" is part of the cycle of paintings that Munch eventually named the "Frieze of Life," first exhibited under that rubric at the Berlin Secession of 1902. It encompassed what he saw as "the modern life of the soul."
A vital part of the exhibition is the extraordinary range of self-portraits Munch made, from youth to near death. He variously depicts himself as a searching, skeptical young man; a dandy and cosmopolitan; a dejected lover; a denizen of hell; Jesus on the Cross above a leering crowd; and a restless night wanderer in his own home. Finally, in the touching "Between the Clock and the Bed" (1940-2), he is a brave figure who stands in his bedroom, his studio behind him, a symbolic clock without hands to the left, as he resolutely confronts the certainty of his end.
Although his native Kristiania was a distance from the aesthetic ferment of the great European cities, Munch didn't remain a provincial for long. His local training inclined him toward Norwegian naturalism, but around 1884 he connected with Kristiania's bohemian set and began to form new attitudes. The next year, an affair with Milly Thaulow, the wife of a cousin of one of his art teachers, inflamed his love life but ended badly, an event that burned deeply into Munch's turbulent psyche. As with every other emotional event in his life, his troubles with women became a rich source of material. "It would kill me were my loneliness taken away from me," he wrote later to another lover, who sought more togetherness. Her spirit, he went on to tell her, was "totally undeveloped."
Finding naturalism too limited an artistic approach, Munch shared this observation in an 1885 letter to a writer friend: "Perhaps some other painter can depict chamber pots under a bed better than I can. But put a sensitive, suffering young girl into the bed, a girl consumptively beautiful with a blue-white skin turning yellow in the blue shadows — and her hands! Can you imagine them? Yes that would be a real accomplishment."
He produced a number of variations — in oils and graphic art — on this theme, haunting evocations of the dying days of his older sister, Sophie, felled at age 15 by tuberculosis, which had earlier killed their mother. In one of six versions on canvas, "The Sick Child" (1896), Sophie is depicted propped against a pillow, her head turned toward a female figure who sits beside her, head bowed, holding her hand. Sophie's thin yellow face has a feverish radiance; her expression already seems otherworldly.
An accompanying lithograph, made the same year in fervid tones of red and yellow, shows only Sophie's head and shoulders and is even more shattering. Here death has taken a firm grip on her features; her sunken eye, grimly set mouth and neglected hair against a background of disorderly cross-hatching show that the battle is all but lost. The work gives ample evidence of Munch's mastery of printmaking, which he probably learned during time spent in Paris and Berlin in the 1890's and early 1900's.
Fortunately, there are many more examples on view.
A whole gallery in the Modern's exhibition is devoted to Munch's prints, important among them fresh interpretations of his "Frieze" themes. And 25 more prints, lent by the Modern, are on display at Scandinavia House in an exhibition organized by Deborah Wye, chief curator of prints and illustrated books at the Modern.
Among the masterpieces at Scandinavia House is "Ashes II" (1899), a lithograph with watercolor additions adapted from a painting of 1894 that may be seen at the Modern. It depicts the end of a love affair, with the man in despair and the woman indifferent. The title "Ashes" refers to the burned-out log that runs along the picture's edge, signifying the death of love.
Also at Scandinavia House are two marvelous woodcuts, their themes now appearing only in print form. (The painting from which they were taken was lost in a shipwreck in 1901.) Each is titled "Two People: The Lonely Ones" (1899-1917). In the subtle coloration for which Munch was noted, they depict a man and a woman on the beach, standing near each other but with just enough separation to indicate their essential alienation.
To make his woodcuts, Munch invented a simplified process of jigsawing each compositional element of the printing block, inking each in the desired color, then fitting them back together and running the reconfigured puzzle through the press just once. This cut out the cumbersome process of using separate woodblocks for each color, which had necessitated putting the print through the press several times.
By the early 1900's, Munch was on his way to international success. He was finished with his "Frieze of Life" cycle, which now included the important (to him) "Metabolism" (1899), an earthy Adam and Eve-like depiction that shows a nude couple divided by a barren tree whose roots feed off a corpse. Its theme, he said, was the powerful constructive forces of life, but its murkiness is un-Munchian.
His work at this point began to take a more traditional turn, including portraits of friends and patrons and landscapes, whose naturalism was inflected by symbolic elements. But it is those haunting, penetrating "Frieze of Life" works that, by reaching deep into normally buried feelings, give Munch his greatness.

Edvard Munch: The Frieze of Life

`We should no longer paint interiors with men reading and women knitting. We should paint living people who breathe, feel, suffer and love.' This manifesto, written in 1889 by the twenty-six-year-old Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, was implemented by him throughout the 1890s in major works on the universal themes of love, anxiety and death, linked in a `symphonic arrangement' he titled The Frieze of Life. Shot on location in Norway and from original paintings and graphic works, with commentary mainly drawn from Munch's own writings, this video explores the psychological and artistic origins and significance of some of the most arresting images in European art.
frieze2 ━━ n. 【建】帯状装飾(壁).
━━ n. フリーズ ((厚地ラシャ)).. - 中楣, 帶狀裝飾
n. - 起絨粗呢
日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 小壁, 帯状装飾, 行列
v. - けばだてる
frieze
Frieze of the Tower of the Winds.
Frieze of the Tower of the Winds.
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain or — in the Ionic or Corinthian order — decorated with bas-reliefs. In a columnar wall it lies upon the architrave ('main beam') and is capped by the moldings of the cornice.
In the interior of a room, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long band of painted, sculpted or even written decoration in such a position, above eye-level. These decorations often depict scenes, in an almost storyboard or animated sequence.
An example of an architectural frieze on the facade of a buildind is the octagonal Tower of the Winds in the Roman agora at Athens, which bears sculptures of the eight winds on its frieze.
This concept has been generalized in the mathematical construction of Frieze patterns.


"Edvard Munch: The Modern Life of the Soul" opens Sunday and is on view through May 8 at the Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53rd Street; (212) 708-9400. "Edvard Munch: Symbolism in Print" is on view through May 13 at Scandinavia House, 58 Park Avenue, near 38th Street, (212) 879-9779,.
Munch Museum, Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society, New York
Edvard Munch's "Ashes" (1894)
孟 克
《孟克》目錄
導論
1 童年及早期的學習過程
2  挪威風土
3 克里斯提尼亞的「波希米亞」
4 巴黎對孟克的影響
5 《生命之序》
6 柏林
7 重遊巴黎
8 寂寞的旅程----愛與死
9 不安的年代
10 危機與回鄉
11 奧斯陸大學的壁畫
12 回顧與前瞻
13 孟克的版畫作品
14 孟克的創作風格與技法
終曲
圖片說明
參考書目
譯名索引
導 論
  在了解孟克(Edvard Munch)的創作以及其對整個時代的意義之前,我們應先審視過去一百年來西方文明在宗教、倫理、哲學與美學等精神價值上發生的急遽變化。雖然這些變化根基於十七世紀人類對宇宙與生命的觀點發生改變之時,但是這些改變一直要到十九世紀下半葉才成為當代關注的重心,並且產生實質上的影響。
  面對人生的錯綜複雜,藝術家常被認為是最敏感者。身處在二十世紀,藉著反傳統藝術強調藝術中的「非藝術」成分、憎惡文化的心態,藝術家不但表現出他們之反對中產階級的藝術與文化,更藉著否定或貶低藝術的傳統價值,以徹底毀滅藝
術在這個時代的根源。要從這種虛無的狀態中回復過去是否可能,還留待後世評斷。
  那麼,我們要如何在二千多年來西方藝術的傳承中定位像孟克這樣的藝術家呢?在整個時代尚未意識到所處困境之前,孟克即身歷苦境,並且描寫出現代人的心理狀態。不但如此,他更指出了這種苦痛就是自己藝術創作的內容與意義所在。
  柯克西卡(Oskar Kokoschka)這位孟克的表現主義(expressionism)及精神面貌的承繼者,在一九五一年倫敦的泰德畫廊(Tate Gallery)為孟克死後所辦的大型回顧展中,曾經撰文表示:「歷史上所謂的轉捩點,通常都會被當時的世人忽視。我們在孟克去世後八年展開的這次展覽,是用以回顧這位八十歲的創作者生前的作品。因此,即使今日在世界文化之都如巴黎、倫敦及威尼斯等地,對孟克的創作還很陌生時,我們是站在後世已肯定孟克的作品之假設下看待這個展覽。這個時代下,人們窮盡在各種形式上做實驗,但是卻未賦予形式以任何意義,藝術家的創作亦是如此地晦暗不明。孟克所要表現的,例如在《美杜莎的愛之頭像》(The Medusa's Head of Love)中,就是反應以上的那種狀態。還沒有任何一位其他的藝術家有膽量探究這樣的狀態,而與孟克同時期的藝術家充其量也只是用僵硬了的面具形象來表現永恆;然而以前那些信仰忠誠的人們則成了代表神祇的圖像。」
  「為藝術而藝術」的教條,主要是不讓藝術在這個機械化的時代裏淪為被使用的工具,從這個層面來看,藝術的確是應該如此。不過,當藝術家過於沉溺做各種實驗、尋找新的價值標準,但是卻未看見藝術品本身的意義何在,便會有另一種聲
音出現,對此點做另外的反應。孟克的作品必須和他的思想一同被看待,此即為其作品之於我們重要之處。
  孟克創造了可稱為「精神氣氛」(spiritual climate)的東西。後二代、甚至三代的藝術家創作,許多均受其影響。孟克是表現主義的創始者,而表現主義則定義為「藉著誇張與扭曲色彩、線條以豐富表現;刻意捨棄在印象主義中蘊含的自然主義,而改取其中簡化的成分,並且將此成分注入更多情感的因素加以發揮。」
  表現主義的藝術家認為藉由冷靜的理性方式創造出的任何事物,都是違反精神的一種罪惡。梵谷(Vincent van Gogh)、孟克、柯克西卡均曾做過如此陳述。
  表現主義的藝術家並留意心理學家容格(Carl Gustav Jung)所說的原型想像,也就是說,他所表現的集體潛意識,其內容與功能性乃具有「遠古的」(archaic)本質在其中。「這所指的並非是去模仿遠古的東西,而是東西的本質中即存在了遠古留下來的質素。那些所有在心理學上主要地呼應著原始的形態與模式者,均可謂具有以上所述的本質。」藝術家所繪的圖像也是遠古的,雖然這些圖像在最初時到底指的是哪一個神話人物並不這麼確定。表現主義的藝術家也與神話建構出的力量有所關聯,這股力量是真正具有創造性與精神性的,而且來自於象徵符號;而這些象徵符號即形成了人類對於生命和整個世界的觀念。
  事實上,表現主義出現在極具張力的時代中,且是一種放諸四海皆準的形式。佛羅倫斯大教堂(Florence Cathedral)中米開蘭基羅(Michelangelo Buonarroti)的《聖母慟子圖》(Pieta)和《卸 下聖體》(Descent from the Cross)二雕像,就是屬於這類表現。還有葛雷柯(El Greco)的作品、年老的林布蘭(Rembrandt van Rijn)和哥雅(Francisco Josede Goya)晚期的作品、格林勒華特(Mathias Grunewald)的作品,以及巴洛克(Baroque)藝術家的作品亦屬於此。維也納的藝術史學者里格爾(Alois Riegl)並且指出,巴洛克藝術的主要特質之一即是顯現出非常深遠的宗教情感。表 現主義的藝術——例如梵谷、柯林特(Lovis Corinth)、孟克、約瑟夫生(Ernst Josephson)、晚期的透納(Joseph Mallord William Turner)、恩索(James Ensor)、柯克西卡、橋派(Die Brucke)的健將們、盧奧(Georges Rouault)、早期的夏卡爾((Marc Chagall)、葉慈(Jack B. Yeats)、史丁(Chaim Soutine)、韋伯(Max Weber)、培根(Francis Bacon)等人的作品——絕對是清醒的、充滿了情感的,強調用精神的經驗以對抗數學性思維和工業的進步——即是對抗整個文化中非人性化以及機械化的成分。
侯定(J.P.Hodin),傑出的藝術史家及評論家,為多種國際藝術刊物撰稿。於布拉格大學獲博士學位,並得到許多頭銜及頒贈的榮耀,包括「聖歐雷夫挪威大十字勳章」。著 有《柯克西卡傳》(Oskar Kokoschka :A Biography)、《葛雷柯:雕塑與繪畫》(Emilio Greco:Sculpture and Drawings)、《現代藝術與現代心靈》(Modern Art and Modern Mind)等書。





http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frieze

frieze

pronunciation

IN BRIEF: A band of designs, drawings, or carvings used as a decoration along a wall or around a room.

pronunciation The beautifully carved frieze in the rotunda depicted acts of bravery and good deeds.
Tutor's tip: The "frieze" (a sculptured or patterned strip on a building) on the building depicts a hero as he "frees" (to release) a child from the ice, only to "freeze" (to turn to ice) to death in the bitter cold himself.


n. - 起絨粗呢
2.
n. - 中楣, 帶狀裝飾

日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 小壁, 帯状装飾, 行列
v. - けばだてる
フリーズとは建築用語で、エンタブラチュアの中央の、幅広い部分を指す。 簡素なものもあれば、イオニア式、コリント式レリーフで装飾されているものもある。 円柱の壁ではフリーズの位置は、アーキトレーブより上、コーニスモールディングより下部になる。
内装ではフリーズは、ピクチャーレールより上、冠モールディングやコーニスより下の壁部分を指す。 広義では、フリーズは絵画彫刻カリグラフィー等で装飾された、横に伸びた部分を言い、上記の位置か、通常は目線より上に位置する。 フリーズの装飾は、支柱によりいくつかのパネルに分かれて、連続した場面を表していることもある。 こういった装飾は、漆喰木彫その他の装飾形式による。

動物、神話のエピソードに基づくホイサレーシュワラ寺院のフリーズ。インド

フリーゼ・パターンの例
建築構造上、フリーズが建物正面にある例としては、アテネ古代ローマ時代のアゴラにある、八角形の風の塔が挙げられる。 風の塔のフリーズには、8人のアネモイ(風神)のレリーフ彫刻が刻まれている。

パルヴィノ(pulvino)は、断面図では凸部になる。 こういったフリーズは17世紀、北部マニエリスムによく見られ、特に補助的なフリーズや、内装、家具などに多い。
フリーズの概念は、フリーゼパターンの数学的作図において一般化した。

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